DATAmatic 1000 Vol 1 The Assembly Program
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DATAmatic 1000

AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING MANUAL

VOLUME I

THE ASSEMBLY PROGRAM

Copyright - 1957

DATAmatic
A Division of Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company
151 Needham Street

Newton Highlands 61, Mass.

Printed in U. S. A.

DSI-6


 

PREFACE

The present manual represents Volume I of a set of Automatic Programming Manuals. It serves to introduce the concept of automatic programming as applied to the DATAmatic 1000 Electronic Data-Processing System. The main body of this volume is devoted to a description and explanation of an Assembly Program for use with this system. The DA TAmatic 1000 body of instructions is reviewed, special Assembly Program instructions are described, and the procedure for writing a program to be assembled is developed, step by step. For the benefit of readers not familiar with the DATAmatic 1000, a brief description of the system precedes the manual.

Volume II is devoted to the DATAmatic ABC-1 Automatic Business Compiler, which permits the programmer to write complicated programs in easily learned codes. This volume also describes the Library Additions and Maintenance Program (LAMP), by means of which the programmer may utilize, modify , and/or add to a set of frequently used routines stored on a special tape called the Subroutine Library. This Subroutine Library is listed and described in a loose-leaf appendix to the Automatic Programming Manuals.

Volume ill is a Utility Manual which describes a number of Service Routines, such as a Tracer Routine, a Storage Print Routine, a Program Modifier Routine, and a Tape Editor Routine. These routines perform service functions which facilitate maintenance and use of the various automatic programming devices available with the DATAmatic 1000.


 

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface iii Introduction to the DATAmatic 1000                                     vii

Introduction to Automatic Programming                                               xxi

Programmer's Language                                                                      1

        Word Structure                                                                         1

        Tags                                                                                       6 

                 Absolute Tags                                                                  6

                 Relative Tags                                                                   8

       Constants                                                                                12 

       Control Instructions                                                                   14

                 START                                                                           14 

                 SEGMENT START                                                             16

                 READ DIRECTED SEGMENT                                                 17

Hollerith Card Format                                                                         19

Input Converter Operation                                                                  21

Assembly Program Operation                                                               23

       Loading the Assembly Program                                                      26

       Starting the Assembly Process                                                      26

       Error Provisions                                                                          28

       Resetting the Assembly Program                                                    32

       Program Tape                                                                            33

Operating Procedure for the Assembled Program                                      33

Appendix A. Fixed-field Card Format                                                      36


 

INTRODUCTION TO THE DATAmatic 1000                                                                   vii

 

The DATAmatic 1000 is a high-capacity electronic data-processing system designed specifically for application to the increasingly complex problems and procedures required in modern business. The system incorporates significant new systems techniques as well as several basically new component developments. One of the primary features of the DATAmatic 1000 is its exceptionally large capacity to store information on magnetic tape, coupled with its ability to feed information from magnetic tape to the processing section and back to magnetic tape at a sustained r ate of 60,000 decimal digits per second. In addition' the operational speed of the processing section maintains full compatibility with this high speed of information transfer.

Two of the most cumbersome aspects of most business problems are sorting and file maintenance. The DATAmatic 1000 is equipped with an extensive and flexible set of instructions, designed specifically to excel in the performance of these functions and many others. These instructions may be automatically assembled into complete programs by the DATAmatic ABC-1 Automatic Business Compiler. Thereafter, a task which is repeated daily or weekly is initiated simply by reusing the program from its storage on the program magnetic tape.

In the DATAmatic 1000, reliability is a prime consideration throughout every aspect of engineering and design. The design of electronic circuitry is highly conservative. Every transfer of information within the system is carefully checked to insure that the information is transferred without alteration. In addition, all arithmetic and logical operations are completely checked. All units of the system are constructed of easily replaced standard packages to facilitate maintenance. A system of marginal checking includes circuitry and a special program which may be run periodically to locate any package which should be replaced because of marginal performance. With proper use of this facility, most machine malfunctions will be corrected before they occur.


 

 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                          viii

A High-Speed Memory Amplifier package representative of the modular construction used throughout the DATAmatic 1000 system

Elements of the System

The system may be conceived functionally as comprising three main sections, the Input, Central Processor, and Output Sections, although its physical layout will generally not correspond with such a conception. Data is initially fed into the Input Section in the form of punched cards. This section, which includes a Card Reader, an Input Converter, and one Magnetic File Unit, reads the data from the cards, translates it into machine language, edits and arranges it into the desired format, and records it on magnetic tape.

The Central Processing Section includes (1) Arithmetic and Control Units, (2) the High-Speed magnetic-core Memory, (3) Magnetic File Units, (4) Input and Output temporary storage Buffers, and (5) the


 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                                 ix

 

Typical Layout of a DATAmatic 1000 Electronic Data-Processing System

Central Console. The Central Processor reads data stored permanently on magnetic tape, performs all manipulations of data, controls the sequence of functions performed, stores information temporarily while it is being processed and, after processing, stores it permanently on magnetic tape. By means of the Central Console, the operator may monitor the overall operation of the system. As needed, Magnetic File Units may be used by auxiliary equipment. Such action is controlled by switches.

The Output Section converts data from magnetic tape into either punched-card form or printed form, performing considerable editing in the process. The Model 1300 Output Converter, which feeds standard punching and/or printing equipment, may either replace or supplement the Model 1400 High-Speed Output Converter and


 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                           x

Printer, depending on the quantitative requirements of the system for output information. One Magnetic File Unit may be considered a part of the Output Section.

Magnetic Tape Storage

The basic medium for the storage of information in the DATAmatic 1000 is magnetic tape. The particular tape used, the method of recording information on it, and the tape-handling equipment have all been designed or selected to be mutually compatible and to provide high capacity, ease and speed of access to information, ultra-reliable storage and recovery of information, and maximum utilization of space on the tape.

Type VTR-179 magnetic tape has been selected for the DATAmatic 1000 because of its reliability and long life. This tape consists of a layer of iron oxide bonded to a tough, durable Mylar plastic base. A reel of tape is three inches wide and 2700 feet long and can store over 37,000,000 decimal digits of information, the equivalent of data which would require 465,000 punched cards.

Stored information is recorded on the magnetic tape in groups of magnetized spots. The length rather than the strength of these spots is used to form a dot-dash code representing the encoded digits, letters, and symbols. This, the first of a series of unique reliability features, assures that variations in the recorded signal strength will not result in errors.

The information is stored in standard quantities called blocks, which are arranged in a novel fashion along the tape. The virtual elimination of dead space and the optimum packing of information into the tape area is achieved by regarding the tape as a series of areas one block in length, then recording in every other block while the tape travels in one direction and in the blocks omitted while the tape travels in the


 

INTRODUCTION

xi

reverse direction. The blocks not filled in a given direction of travel provide the space for starting and stopping the tape in that direction. As a result, information is recorded on almost the entire area of the tape. Moreover, since the reversal of tape direction is accomplished automatically, all of this information is written or read sequentially and the tape is positioned at its physical beginning at the conclusion of this process.

Information is recorded lengthwise to the tape in 31 channels, a system which greatly speeds the transfer of information and facilitates searching processes. Specifically, as many as ten tapes may be searched

simultaneously, which means that the system is actually passing over 600,000 decimal digits per second while seeking the particular item desired. The read-record head will write on the tape at the sustained rate of 60,000 decimal digits per second and will recover this information at the same rate. The reading or searching operations may be performed with the tape travelling either forward or backward.

The tape-drive mechanism and the read-record head are contained in the Magnetic File Unit. An installation may include from four to one hundred Magnetic File Units, all directly connected into the system. They may be divided in any manner and at any time between the reading and recording operations. The volume of transactions and the complexity of operations govern the number of Magnetic File Units required for a given system. Furthermore, these units may be added to or removed from the system at any time as these requirements vary.

In order that any Magnetic File Unit may be interrogated and information recovered from it without interrupting the operation of the Central Processor, a File Reference Unit is available. Thus a Magnetic File Unit may, at different times, be recording data received from the Input Converter, reading data to the Output Converter, recording data


 

 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                      xii

DATAmatic 1000 Magnetic File Units

from the Central Processor, reading data to the Central Processor, or reading data to a File Reference Unit. Also available is a File Switching Unit which increases the flexibility with which Magnetic File Units may be arranged into the various functional groups.

Input Section

Data enters the DATAmatic 1000 on standard 80-column punched cards

which are initially read by the Card Reader. In this unit the card is read twice, the two readings are compared, and the card is stacked. If the two readings of the card are not identical, the operation of the Input Section will stop and the card will be sent to a reject hopper. The Card Reader holds batches of over 3000 cards at one time and passes them at the rate of 900 fully punched cards per minute.

 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                  xiii

 

The information which is read from the punched cards is translated into the language of the system and arranged in the format of the magnetic tape by the Input Converter. In this process, it passes through two control panels and two temporary storage locations, providing great flexibility for transposition, duplication, and discarding of information. The operator manually sets an identifying control number into the Input Converter, which includes this number in the information to be written on magnetic tape. The control number may then be written on the batch of cards which it represents, in case it is desired later to cross-reference these cards with their corresponding tape.

The encoded information is first arranged in a 100-column format within the converter. In this conversion, any number of card columns may be duplicated provided that the total number of columns does not exceed 100. Triplication of columns is not permitted. Thirteen conversion rules are available for the translation of punch code into machine code. Any single card column may be translated by anyone of these thirteen rules. The information is then translated into the final tape format, the contents of two punched cards being fed to each block on the magnetic tape. Several automatic checking features are built in to detect improperly punched cards or errors either in reading or in one of the conversion steps. The operator controls the settings of a group of panel switches which direct the course of action that the machine is to follow in each of these situations.

It must be emphasized that the operation of the Input Converter is strictly "off-line". That is, it proceeds entirely independently of and simultaneously with the data-processing and/or output functions. Normally, one or more specific Magnetic File Units are assigned the function of writing on tape all raw data received from input and communicating it to the Central Processor.


 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                     xiv

Binary Notation

Information which is manipulated, stored, or communicated other than by electronic systems is generally written using 10 decimal digits, 26 alphabetic characters, and a number of punctuation marks and other special symbols. Basic to the adaptation of information to electronic systems is the fact that such information can be written entirely in terms of two symbols, generally called zero and one. This presentation is called binary notation and is analogous to the presentation of information in the more familiar Morse Code, in which the two symbols used are called dots and dashes. The symbols used in a binary notation are called binary digits or bits. For example, the ten familiar decimal digits, 0 through 9, are represented in binary notation as follows:

      

0000 - 0  0101 - 5

000I - 1

0110 - 6
0010 - 2  0111 - 7
 0011 - 3 1000 - 8
0100 - 4 1001 - 9

Bars will sometimes be placed over binary digits when there is some danger of confusing them with decimal zeros and ones.

The storage of information by electronic equipment depends upon the ability to distinguish between two states which represent the two symbols used in binary codes. There are many electronic devices which can make such a distinction. An example of such a device which is both fast and reliable is the tiny, ring-shaped magnetic core. This core

may be magnetized in either of two senses; in one sense it is considered to be storing a binary zero and in the other sense a binary one. These tiny magnetic cores constitute the principal element for the storage of information in the High-Speed Memory and buffer storage units of the DATAmatic 1000 Central Processor. In a group of four such magnetic cores, ten of the sixteen possible combinations of states may be used to represent the ten decimal digits.


 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                          xv

Central Processing Section

The Central Processor has already been defined to include the Arithmetic and Control Units, the Input and Output Buffer Storage Units, the HighSpeed Memory, the Magnetic File Units, and the Central Console. Together, these units contain the electronic elements and circuitry for high-speed performance of the stored programs.

The fast and reliable internal memory is composed of over 100,000 magnetic cores and has a capacity of 24, 000 decimal digits. Access is in parallel for rapid readout of stored information. Processing of data stored on magnetic tape is also enhanced by the inclusion of two Input and two Output Buffer Storage Units. These buffers, which are each capable of storing 744 decimal digits, permit a steady flow of information to and from memory and enable the memory to read from one tape and write on another simultaneously.

The design of the Central Processor and the provision of certain special instructions are specifically aimed at the attainment of high sorting, merging, and file-maintenance speeds. Some examples of the speeds achieved are:

Sort - 60,000 decimal digits per second (equivalent to 750 fully punched cards per second).
Merge - 60, 000 decimal digits per second. 
File Maintenance - 600,000 decimal digits per second.

Arithmetic instructions are carried out by the Arithmetic Unit. The sequence of performance of the stored instructions is directed by the Control Unit. The Central Console is the means of human communication with, and control over, the system. It affords active human control over starting and stopping the machine and passive communication in displaying a continuous picture of the status of the DATAmatic 1000 as it processes a program instruction by instruction. The latter property is an exceptionally useful diagnostic tool for program debugging. The


 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                     xvi

 

High-Speed Memory section of the DATAmatic 1000 Central Processor

Central Console also mounts a special automatic typewriter which is used for the manual insertion of data to the machine and for the interrogation of the machine. The components of the system can be checked out by running the marginal check program. The Console displays the results which indicate whether any package in the system is approaching an unsatisfactory level.


 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                         xvii

DATAmatic 1000 Central Console showing simplicity of layout achieved through functional design

A fundamental reliability feature of the system is the fact that each basic unit of information includes a check digit called the weight count. This weight count is recomputed after each transfer of information within

the system. The arithmetic comparison of the original and the recomputed weight counts is an extremely positive and economical means of verifying all internal information transfers, plus arithmetic and logical operations.

Output Section

The Output Section, like the Input Section of the DATAmatic 1000, operates entirely "off-line". It accomplishes the conversion of information stored on magnetic tape into the form of punched cards or printed copy. Two alternative output sections are available which may be purchased


 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                        xviii

either singly or together, depending on the quantity and speed requirements of the application. These are the Model 1300 Output Converter which provides the required output to drive a standard card punch and/ or a standard 150-line-a-minute printer, and the Model1400 High-Speed Output Converter which includes a special DATAmatic High-Speed Printer capable of printing 900 lines per minute. As is the case in the Input Section, one or more Magnetic File Units are normally assigned to communicate between the Central Processor and the Output Converter.

Model1300: The Model 1300 Output Converter reduces data stored on magnetic tape to a form acceptable to a standard 150-line-per-minute tabulator and/or a standard 100-card-per-minute card punch. The tabulator and card punch functions, governed by standard control panels, are preserved.

Information is read from magnetic tape to the converter in quantities of up to 192 decimal digits, 128 alphabetic characters, or equivalent. Each of these sets of data is processed individually and becomes the basis of one line of printed output and/or one 80-column punched card.

The data is then read into converter output storage through a code translator, controlled by a conversion control panel. There are 14 rules for the translation of machine language into standard punch card code.

The output storage section simulates 120 columns of punch-card data, in which form the information leaves the converter. Format arrangement and all other standard printout functions are governed in normal fashion by the control panels associated with the readout equipment. In the case of the card punch, the data is converted into the standard 80-column format and transposition and duplication of columns are effected, as desired, by proper wiring of the card punch control panel.


 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                       xix

Model 1400: The Model 1400 High-Speed Output Converter operates from a completely flexible tape format and performs a considerable amount of editing and format arrangement while preparing information to be printed at the rate of nine hundred 120-character

lines per minute. In fact, the most complicated printed formats are obtained with a minimum amount of pre -editing required in the Central Processor. Special symbols and legend material can be emitted. Also the printing of certain parts of the form may be suppressed, dependent upon the contents of other data within the particular record. Furthermore, the same output tape may be used for several different types of printing runs by wiring and using all of the control panels in the equipment. The sequence of information on magnetic tape need not have any relation to the sequence of printing of information within a given line. It is, moreover, possible to scan a record on the tape several times, on each occasion deriving different combinations of data to be printed on a given form; data from the tape may be rejected or printed several times at will.

From the moment that information is read from the magnetic tape to the actual printing process, a complete train of information monitoring exists to preclude the possibility of printing erroneous information. This system includes a read-back signal from the actual printing hammer to the original stored information to verify the correctness of the character being printed in every column of the form.

The High-Speed Output Converter reads information from magnetic tape in discrete quantities of up to 192 decimal digits. These quantities may be read from any part of the block and are handled as separate units of information throughout the conversion process. Three control panels are used to select the input information, trans

late it, and store it in the 120-position converter storage. There are 160 printing positions available on the High-Speed Printer, of which any


 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                        xx

120 may be used during a given run. Two additional control panels are used to select the particular 120 print positions to be used and to perform further editing.

Integrated Checking

The weight count feature of the DATAmatic 1000, previously described, is an integrated checking system which verifies every information transfer, arithmetic and logical operation from the original conversion to machine language through the final production of printed or punched output. The weight count digit is originally computed and checked during the input conversion process. It is then recorded on tape, one such digit being an integral part of each basic unit of information and remaining with this basic unit throughout all of the operations of the system. Thereafter, recomputation and checking of weight count verifies every transfer of information from tape to the Central Processor, and all internal operations within the Central Processor, transfers from the Central Processor to tape, transfers from tape to the Output Converter, and Output Converter decoding processes. Each of these checking sequences is integrated with the preceding and following sequence to form a single, system-wide verification of accuracy. The weight count system is augmented in various DATAmatic 1000 units with duplicate circuitry and other special circuits which further extend the checking system.


 

INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING                                           xxi

Automatic programming routines aid in preparing programs for electronic data-processing systems by replacing many repetitious manual tasks with automatic machine functions. Not only are time and money saved, but programming accuracy is greatly enhanced. In fact, the sheer volume of programming required by large data-processing applications has made such routines a practical necessity. In order to illustrate how such routines assist the programmer, it is necessary first to describe the steps associated with conventional program preparation and then to show the manner in which automatic programming can replace some of these steps or minimize the work associated with them.

Manual Programming Procedure

The preparation of a program to perform a large-scale data-processing operation without the use of automatic programming can be broken down into these eight major steps:

(1)  Analysis of the Operation 
(2) System Design
(3) Program Design
(4) Coding
(5) Input Preparation  
(6) Checkout Planning
(7) Checkout
(8) Program Operation

Step 1. Analysis of the Operation. In a data -processing operation, the machine processes a large quantity and a wide variety of data in order to produce the required information. Therefore, before a method of approach can be considered, the operation to be performed must be carefully analyzed. All of the specific inputs must be designated, the frequency and manner of processing them must be determined, add the volume of each type of input data must be


INTRODUCTION                                                                                   xxii

estimated. The same consideration must be given to the required output information. This analysis is frequently made by means of flow charts which show the interconnections and sequential relationships of these inputs, processes, and outputs.

Step 2. System Design. With the inputs, processes, and outputs of the operation clearly defined, it is possible to design a programming system. The initial task at this step is to specify the format of the data being processed at the input stage, the processing stages, and the output stage, i. e., the way in which the information will be punched on input cards, the format of the information on magnetic tape files, and the printed or punched output format. The procedure for operating the data-processing system must also be considered; tape changing during program operation, console operation, control panel wiring, and control information printed out at the operator's console all play an important role in the design of the system.

At this point, the preparation of the actual program begins. A block diagram is prepared which shows the logical steps that the input data must go through in order to produce the required output information and the sequence in which these steps are to be performed. This diagram consists of a series of blocks, one for each logical step, with lines connecting the blocks to indicate the sequence in which they are performed.

Step 3. Program Design. Each block of the block diagram is next broken down into a number of boxes, each of which specifies a function to be implemented by a few machine instructions. This new diagram gives a complete picture of how the program will operate on the machine. It is called a programming flow diagram and it provides the link between the flow chart, the block diagram, and the actual program instructions.


 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                         xxiii

Step 4. Coding. The programmer may now begin the coding process, that is, writing the instructions which will direct the data -processing system to perform the functions indicated in each box of the programming flow diagram. Memory locations must be assigned to all program instructions and other data. However, prior to the actual start of coding, the method of operation indicated by the block and flow diagrams should be evaluated and any changes which will improve the program should be introduced at this point.

Step 5. Input Preparation. The coded program must be transcribed onto a medium which the data-processing system can read and translated into a language which it can understand. This function is accomplished by keypunch operators who transfer the information from the programmers' coding sheets onto standard aD-column punched cards. The Input Converter then writes the punched information on magnetic tape.

Step 6. Checkout Planning. Up to this point, the programming system has been gradually broken down into a large number of steps, each of which is implemented by a few machine instructions. These instructions have been assembled in the proper sequence to perform the data-processing operation. After a program has been coded, steps must be taken to verify that it performs the desired functions. First, an overall checkout plan must be prepared; then the steps in the checkout process must be specified in detail.

Step 7. Checkout. The first part of the checkout process is to operate the program using specific controls prepared during step 6 as a part of the overall checkout plan. These controls permit the programmer to examine information at the various logical breaks in the program. As errors are detected in this process, corrections to the coding must be made as specified in step 4 (coding), and step 5 (input preparation) must be repeated. The program


 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                      xxiv

must be tested with a variety of input data and it should be made to produce samples of all of the types of output information. Therefore, to conclude the checkout process, a simulation of the entire programming system must be performed on the machine.

Step 8. Program Operation. Each checked-out program requires operating instructions, scheduling information, and set-up plans in order to make the most efficient use of the machine. These instructions must specify the techniques necessary to get the input data into the machine, control the processing of the data, and prepare the required output information. They should also specify all of the special indications which are produced at the operator's console to increase the efficiency of program operation. To complete the documentation, a flow diagram and an annotated copy of the program must be prepared.

Elements of Automatic Programming

ASSEMBLY PROGRAMS: The purpose of automatic programming is

to replace the routine portions of these eight steps with machine operations. First of all, the language which the programmer uses differs from the language of the machine. Programmers work best with easily remembered or mnemonic operation codes (e. g., ADD, SUB, MUL) and decimal numbers; electronic data -processing systems work with binary information. The translation from the mnemonic-decimal language of the programmer into the binary language of the machine is just the sort of task which high-speed data-processing systems do well. Not only is translation accomplished rapidly, but the results are error-free. Programs which perform this operation are usually called Assembly Programs.

COMPILERS: In the program design step, the blocks of the block diagram are broken down into boxes of a flow diagram to be transcribed into machine coding and checked out. Frequently, the same block


 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                      xxv

appears in several programs. Using manual programming procedures, the coding and checkout steps must be repeated each time this block appears. However, much time can be saved in the flow diagramming, coding, and checkout of routines with identical blocks by having the person who first codes the block perform a few extra tasks to preserve the coding for other programmers wishing to use it. Such reusable blocks are called subroutines. The routine task of duplication of coding can be eliminated by extending the Assembly Program so that subroutines can be added to any program by a single instruction. Therefore, by introducing subroutines into the programming system, all of the steps after System Design are effectively and automatically eliminated with respect to the subroutines. A program which is capable of processing subroutines in this fashion is called a Compiler because it compiles completely coded and checked-out subroutines into a program.

SUBROUTINE LIBRARY MAINTENANCE: Subroutines, together with instructions for their use, are stored on magnetic tape or on punched cards in what is called a Subroutine Library. A Compiler may be supplemented by a program which automatically adds, deletes, or modifies subroutines in the Subroutine Library. This Library Maintenance Program, as it is generally called, relieves the programmer of another routine task.

RELATIVE AND SYMBOLIC CODING: Assembly Programs and Compilers frequently utilize either relative or symbolic tags which permit a programmer to refer to instructions and data in his program without having to assign them specific memory locations. Words with relative tags are coded in groups and have definite relative positions within these groups. After detailed coding is completed, the programmer assigns memory areas to these groups of relative tags. Words with symbolic tags are automatically assigned memory locations by the Compiler or Assembly Program. Both systems simplify detailed coding and also enable programmers to make program modifications, additions, and deletions without extensive recoding.


 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                      xxvi

UTILITY ROUTINES: The automatic routines which have been described assist in the preparation of programs. There is another group of automatic routines which aid in the checkout phase of program preparation. These are called Utility Routines.

In the checkout step, the programmer is assigned short periods of time on the machine. During these periods, he must operate his program and obtain sufficient information to locate and analyze any errors it may contain. A listing of the contents of memory at various stages of this process may provide the necessary information. The program which produces such a listing is called a Post Mortem or Memory Dump Routine. These routines convert the contents of memory from the binary form to the mnemonic and decimal language of the programmer.

Some types of errors are difficult to track down using the Post Mortem Routine. Under such conditions the programmer would like to know exactly what happens as each instruction is performed in the region of the error. This could be accomplished manually by using the Central Console to examine the affected memory locations after performing each instruction. However, this process is extremely wasteful of machine time. A program called a Tracing Routine performs this function automatically at high speeds. The Tracing Routine produces a listing of the instructions performed in the sequence in which they were performed and for each instruction specifies the contents of the affected memory locations.

Data-processing systems work with information stored on magnetic tape; therefore, certain procedures are necessary to insure efficient handling of the data. For example, routines which will copy files from one tape to another, locate, write, and modify files, and edit tape files for printing must be available as a part of an automatic programming system.

 

INTRODUCTION                                                                                       xxvii

There are many other programs in an automatic programming system, some which perform simpler functions and some which are much more sophisticated. The complete set of automatic programs provided for DATAmatic 1000 customers, the DATAmatic Automatic Business Compiler System (ABC-I), is described in this and the following volumes.

 

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