4677th DSES EB-57 EARLY WARNING SAC
THIS EMBLEM WAS ACTUALLY DESIGNED FOR THE 4677 DSES AND USED BY FOLLOW
UNITED STATES AIR FORCE
17th DEFENSE SYSTEMS EVALUATION SQUADRON
EB-57 Squadron decal
Decal is from the 17th Defense Systems Evaluation Squadron, an EB-57
Unit formerly based at Malmstrom AFB, Montana, that flew ECM and radar
calibrations checks against ground-based early warning & control
radar squadron sites.
This unit was a radar aggressor testing radar intercepts.
This decal would be a nice addition for the test, radar, or squadron
Cold War USAF EB-57 Unit Decal 17th DSES
.MEASUREMENTS: 5-1/2" TALL X 3-3/4" WIDE,
Decal features Big Crow throwing lightening bolt to test the defense
capability of interceptors and ground control radar site of 4677 DSES
which became the 17th
Defense Systems Evaluation Squadron when the unit moved to Malmstrom
of the United States Air Force EB-57 Unit 4677 th DSES Squadron:
EB-57 Electronic Countermeasures (ECM)
As part of the Aerospace Defense Command (ADC), the B-57 was the
These Defense Systems Evaluation Squadrons (DSES) were used to
penetrate Air Defense Identification Zones (ADIZ) acting as enemy
bombers to test the defense capability of interceptors and ground
control radar sites of ADC.
In addition, training for individual intercept squadrons was a
RB-57s served with Strategic Air Command (SAC) and Pacific Air
Command, with the Military Airlift Command (MAC) (for air sampling),
and with Aerospace Defense Command (for calibrating the NORAD radar
Their wings had been extended from the original 64 feet to 106 feet.
Since the first agreement, signed in 1958, formalized existing
cooperative air defense agreements between the U.S. and Canada, NORAD
has served the citizens of the United States and Canada as the first
line of defense against an atmospheric attack on their homelands, and
has provided through its space warning capabilities a clear deterrent
to any aggressor.
Through outstanding cooperation and cohesiveness, this organization
has proven itself effective in its roles of watching, warning, and
The last two active duty units were the 4713 DSES and 4677 DSES which
became the 17th DSES when the unit moved to Malmstrom AFB.
The aircrews and ground crews were frequently on duty away from their
The 4713th called itself the "Roving Ravens".
The rotatable bomb bay of the Canberra replaced bombs with electronic
black boxes and the fuselage bristled with antennas.
From the wing pods, chaff, used by the British in World War II was
still an effective radar jammer.
In the back seat of the B-57, the Electronic Warfare Officer (EWO)
orchestrated these electronic countermeasures using his own skills to
test and hone those of the interceptor aircraft crew.
At the same time the EWO took pride in developing the skills needed in
his assigned wartime mission.
As changes occurred in U.S. Air Force structure and the nation's
defense needs were updated, the Air National Guard absorbed this
mission as it had others.
One of the last units to fly the ECM aircraft was the Vermont Air
National Guard from Burlington known as "The Green Mountain
E model 499 from that unit is on display in the Air Force Museum at
Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.
The Martin EB-57E Canberra is an American version of the English
Electric Canberra used by the RAF and was produced under license by
the Glenn L. Martin Company.
It was first used by the U.S. Air Force in 1954 and was used primarily
as a low level bomber and night attack aircraft.
The B-57E was also used as a reconnaissance aircraft and as a target
The Canberra saw action early during the Vietnam Conflict, arriving in
During that time, 24 B-57s participated in the Rolling Thunder bombing
campaign along with other types of U.S. Air Force aircraft.
The most interesting version of the B-57 is the RB-57F reconnaissance
Its role was similar to that of the U-2, a high flying, long endurance
To this end, the RB-57 wingspan was lengthened to 122 feet, in order
to lift the aircraft to extreme altitudes.
The B-57 aircraft featured on display at Castle Air Museum is an
electronic warfare version.
Its mission was to simulate enemy attacks against American airspace,
in order to test our defenses.
It began life as a B-57E and was delivered to the Air Force in 1956
and served with the Air Defense Command.
It was modified to its EB-57E configuration in 1964 and served last
with the 17th Defense Systems Evaluation Squadron at Malstrom Air
Force Base in Montana.
It was acquired by the Museum from the Military Aircraft Storage
Facility in Arizona and was restored in 1992 by Castle Museum
Martin EB-57E 'Night Intruder Description
Notes: B-57E modified for ecm capability.
Provides electronic countermeasure targets to ground and airborne
Base model: B-57
Designation: EB-57 Nickname:Night Intruder
Service: U.S. Air Force
Basic role: Bomber
Designation Period: 1924-Present
Modified Mission : Special electronic installation
DSES Squadron U.S. Air Force CONUS or Alaskan AC&W
..... U.S. Air Force early warning radar nstallation / radar
station...... long-range early warning installations
SAC : Strategic Air Command
ADC : Air Defense Command
ADIZ : Air Defense Identification Zone - a site's area of
responsibility. It is an invisible boundary between Canada, Mexico and
the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans and aircraft entering into the U.S.
airspace need to have filed a flight plan before entering so that they
may be identified
AMIS Air Movement Intelligence Section - Identifies all aircraft
entering the ADIZ, and Restricted Area. If no information available
the unknown aircraft is "scrambled" on
ECCM: Electronic Counter Counter Measures was the radar site response
to try to overcome the aircraft jammng or spoofing.
ECM : Electronic Counter Measure - An attempt by an enemy to jam a
EDP: Exercise Emergency Defense Plan
EWO: Electronics Warfare Officer: At first found on SAC bombers, later
on some radar sites which possessed ECM capability (AN/FPS-27)
Ferret: Term applied to the aircraft and/or airborne ECM operator
gathering information on radar signatures, frequencies, strengths,
Handy-Dandy : E6B navigation computer , used by Intercept Officers and
ICTs (Intercept Control Techs) to compute intercept point ..
Malmstrom Air Force Base supports 200 ICBMs scattered throughout a
23,500 square mile missile field.
The missile field is controlled by strategically placed missile alert
Nearly 1,000 military police, helicopters and several hundred vehicles
patrol the missile field.
Malmstrom AFB also has support agreements with a number of other
military and non-military units organizations.
A little history of the Alaskan Air Command , Alaskan Air Defense
Forces & the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD).
On the 27th of June 1950, the air defense system began 24 hour-a-day,
7 day-a-week operations in response to the outbreak of war in Korea.
At the time there were three squadrons of F-80Cs at Elmendorf AFB and
a squadron of F-82s at Ladd.
By August 1950, the replacement of F-80Cs with F-94s began.
The 10th (at Elmendorf AFB) and 11th (at Ladd) Air Divisions were
formed on the 1st of November 1950.
Two additional sites were added to the Aerospace Control and Warning
(AC&W) system in 1951 (Indian Mountain and Sparrevohn) bringing
the total number of sites to 12.
The sites became operational between 1951 and 1954. In 1951 plans were
formulated to add 18 additional sites, but budget restrictions reduced
the number added to 6 (Middleton Island, Ohison Mountain (near Homer),
Bethel, Fort Yukon, Unalakleet, and Kotzebue.
By the spring of 1952, the Soviet Union was operating the TU-4 (a
strategic bomber based on a re-engineered B-29 Superfortress) from air
fields at Mys Shmidta and Provideniya on the Chutkotsky Peninsula.
A U.S. reconnaissance flight, flown out of Eielson AFB on 15 October
1952, confirmed the development of Soviet Arctic staging bases on the
The TU-4 was replaced by newer bombers such as the TU-16 Badger, the
MYA-4 Bison, and the turboprop powered TU-95 Bear in the mid 1950s.
By September 1953, the F-94Cs began replacing the F-89Cs at Elmendorf
The Bi-National Build Up of a Continental Air Defense System
During the late 1940s and early 1950s, Canada and the United States
entered into agreements on the installation of a series of radar
They were the CADIN-Pinetree Line, the Mid Canada Line and the Distant
Early Warning (DEW) Line.
All of these systems became linked through the Semi-Automated Ground
Environment (SAGE) complex which was later augmented by the Back-Up
Interceptor Control (BUIC) communication network.
Installation of the Pinetree line (became known as the Continental Air
Defense Integration North (CADIN)-Pinetree Line in 1961) started in
It comprised 33 AC&W sites (6 transportable radars) along the 50th
parallel in Canada with a capability for warning and control.
It was 2/3 funded by the United States and became fully operational
with the AN/FPS-508 Search radar in 1958.
Besides these, there were 10 radars installed in Greenland and Iceland
to extend the radar coverage eastward.
The Mid Canada line was installed in 1954. It comprised 98 sites.
There were 8 sector control stations and 90 unattended doppler
detection sites along the 54-55th parallel.
They were funded by Canada and became operational in 1958.
The Distant Early Warning (DEW) line was approved in 1954.
Its installation started in 1955 and it was operational in 1957.
A total of 57 stations (15 in Alaska and 42 in Canada) were installed
along the 69th parallel to act as a trip wire.
When added to an existing AC&W site at Cape Lisburne that doubled
as a DEW line site, the total number of DEW line stations became 58.
The sites were largely funded and staffed by the US. Of the 57
stations that were built, there were 6 main stations equipped with an
FPS-19 search set and an FPS-23 fluttar receiver.
They also had conventional VHF and UHF transmitters and receivers that
enabled voice ground-to-air communications, multi-channel voice and
teletype lateral tropospheric communications equipment (AN/FRC-45
UHF), and multi-channel rearward teletype and voice ionic scatter
(IS-101 VHF) communications equipment that was integrated in the Mid
Canada Line and in Alaska.
Airborne objects were plotted and correlated in the main stations; 23
auxiliary stations equipped with the FPS-19 and FPS-23.
They also had VHF and UHF ground-to-air communications equipment and
UHF tropospheric scatter equipment to communicate with the other DEW
Line stations; and 28 intermediate stations equipped with the FPS-23.
They also had lateral voice communications via FM mobile radio.
Alaska's Dew Line Badge and White Alice Air Defense Systems
AAC s interest in the DEW Line started in the spring of 1953 when it
was asked to logistically support the installation of several
experimental radars built between Barter Island and Point Barrow.
In 1954, once the experimental line of radars (called project
Counterchange, then project Corrode, then Project 572) was proven, the
USAF proceeded to install the rest of the DEW line.
Of the 15 DEW Line stations built in Alaska, 2 were main stations, 5
were auxiliary stations, and 8 were intermediate stations.
All 15 sites were equipped with the AN/FPS-23 receiver and the
AN/FPS-19 DEW line search sets were installed at Point Lay,
Wainwright, Point Barrow (main station), Lonely, Oliktok, Barter
Island (main station), and Flaxman Island.
Construction started in 1955 and was completed in 1958 on the White
Alice communications system.
It tied the AC&W system together with an extensive network of 33
troposcatter and microwave sites.
The White Alice system replaced a VHF point-to-point voice and
teletype radio system.
Once the radar and communications air defense systems projects were
underway, AAC turned its attention to improving its air defense data
processing and weapons control functions.
The Base Air Defense Ground Environment (BADGE) system was approved
for Alaska by the USAF
In May of 1955. AAC studied both the SAGE and BADGE systems and
concluded that the BADGE system would best meet its needs.
In late 1955, the JCS approved the extension of the DEW line into
Greenland (4 AN/FPS-30 search set sites supported from Sondestrom) and
CINC Continental Air Defense (CINCONAD) assumed responsibility for the
air defense of Alaska on 1 Sept 1956. In 1957, Alaskan Air Command was
at its peak air defense strength when operational control of Alaskan
air defense forces was transferred to the newly established North
American Air Defense Command (NORAD).
The number of FI squadrons was reduced from 6 to 4 with the arrival of
the F-102s at Elmendorf AFB.
By 1958, Alaska s AC&W system comprised 18 sites as follows:
3 direction center sites that included Murphy Dome and Fire Island
(September 1951), King Salmon (November 1951); 3 Ground Control and
Intercept Sites that included Tatalina and Campion (April 52), and
Fort Yukon (April 58); and 12 Surveillance Sites that included Cape
Lisburne (February 1953), Cape Romanzof, Tin City and Northeast Cape
(April 53), Indian Mountain (November 53), Sparrevohn (March 54), Cape
Newenham (April 54), Koetzebue and Olson Mountain (April 58),
Middleton Island (May 58), Unalakleet (April 58) and Bethel (July 58).
In 1958, there were also 22 DEW line radars (FPS-19 and FPS-23)
installed at 15 sites in Alaska.
Seven of these were FPS-19 radars. Air Defense fighter forces
consisted of the 10th Air Division at Elmendorf (three Fighter
Interceptor Squadrons 64th 65th and 66th) responsible for the south
sector and the 11th Air Division at Ladd (449th FI Squadron)
responsible for the north sector.
In 1959, the Aleutian segment of the DEW line became operational. Six
additional AN/FPS-19 search set sites were built at Cold Bay (main
site), and Nikolski, Port Heiden, Port Moller, Cape Sarichef, and
Driftwood Bay (auxiliary sites).
NORAD and the Alaskan NORAD Region
Canada joined the United States to set up the North American Air
Defense Command (NORAD) on an interim basis on 7 August 1957 (based on
an agreement between the Canadian Minister of National Defence (under
authority from the new Prime Minister) and the United States Secretary
Formal confirmation of the new agreement was provided by the two
governments on 12 May 1958 (the date of the opening session of the
1958 Canadian Parliament).
The first agreement was valid for 10 years.
Alaska became part of NORAD when the Alaskan NORAD Region (ANR) was
activated on the 5th of August 1958. The Commander in Chief, Alaskan
Command was dual hatted as the Commander ANR.
In 1961, the AAC COC was replaced with the ANR Control Center (ANRCC).
and the control center at Murphy Dome became an alternate for the
ANRCC. Alaska s two air defense sectors were combined with the
introduction of the new ANRCC, and ANR became responsible for all of
Alaska s airspace.
Other NORAD-related activity in Alaska in 1961 included: the transfer
of Ladd to the Army (it was renamed Fort Wainwright); and Clear being
added for Ballistic Missile Warning (one of three sites worldwide
others located at Flyingdales and Greenland).
It was connected by microwave sites (B-route) down the Alaska Highway
and undersea cable from Ketchikan to Seattle (A-route) to Cheyenne
By the end of 1962, NORAD had reached its high point as an anti-bomber
By then, the Soviet Union had started a concentrated build up of
A reduction in surface based systems started and NORAD s emphasis
shifted to attack warning and characterization due to the build up of
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) and Sea-launched
Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs).
The Ballistic Early Warning System (BMEWS) was built and deployed
between 1957 and 1963.
Because there was no defense against these, deterrence became NORAD s
The F-106 was introduced to Alaska in 1963 and the radar sites at
Bethel (between Cape Romanzof and Cape Newenham), Middleton Island and
Ohlson Mountain were closed.
The closures reduced the number of AC&W sites to 15.
In 1965, the ANRCC became automated with the operational activation of
the FYQ-9 Data Processing and Display system.
The manual reporting system was replaced with one that was
Prior to the FYQ-9 installation, ANR had to manually track and plot
The FYQ-9 also provided increased data processing speed for air
defense data sent from the Alaskan radar sites to Elmendorf AFB.
The first NORAD renewal became effective on 12 May 1968 extending the
1958 agreement for a further five years.
It had a one year termination clause added and an interpretative
clause that stipulated that the '"Agreement will not involve in
any way a Canadian commitment to participate in an active ballistic
Major reductions in aerospace control assets were directed by the
Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1969 because of the change in focus from a
strategic air breathing to a missile threat.
Changes in Alaska included the deactivation of the Aleutian DEW line
segment on the 30th of September 1969 (except for the Cold Bay site
which was converted to a NORAD surveillance site).
That same year, the Nike-Hercules battalion was inactivated, the radar
sites at Unalakleet and Northeast Cape were closed, and the remaining
dedicated fighter interceptor squadron was inactivated.
Rotational fighter interceptor squadrons provided coverage until the
As well, the AC&W system had become expensive to maintain and
In June 1970, the F4E was introduced to Alaska and Alaskan Air Command
became increasingly involved in tactical operations.
The Command did not, however, neglect its air defense mission.
On the 19th of October 1971, two F4Es were launched in response to
Alaska s first skyjacking of an airliner.
New systems were being fielded in the early 1970s to support the NORAD
mission of warning and characterization of attack from ICBMs and SLBMs
such as the satellite early warning system (Defense Support Program (DSP)
and Defense Satellite Communication System II (DSCS II) satellites).
The DSP satellites detected the launch of ballistic missiles.
The DSCS satellites transmitted data from the DSP to ground stations
and then transmitted processed information to NORAD.
Other systems such as the BMEWS radars worked in conjunction with
these satellites and other systems to confirm the approach of incoming
ballistic missiles to North America.
Changes were also occurring in Alaska.
On the 1st of January 1971, RCA Alascom purchased the Alaska
Communications System (ACS) from the Air Force.
The ACS provided long-line communications services for all of Alaska
to civilian and military users.
The second renewal of NORAD became effective on 10 May 1973 extending
the 1958 agreement for a further two years.
The Canadian Government wanted time to consider the component elements
of a modernized air defense system under development taking into
account the evolving strategic situation, including developments in
the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT).
The Air Staff Sabre Yukon study was released in 1974.
It recommended modernizing the existing AC&W system.
Two modernization programs were initiated.
The first included the modernization of the ANRCC within the program
established for the replacement of the SAGE system within the CONUS
with a Joint USAF-FAA use Region Operations Control Center/Joint
Surveillance System (ROCC/JSS) system.
The second, known as the Seek Igloo program, would replace existing
site radars with minimally attended radars.
The third renewal of NORAD became effective on 12 May 1975.
The 1975 agreement acknowledged the significant changes in the
character of strategic weapons which resulted in the enhancement of
mutual deterrence and degraded the threat of long-range bombers.
It committed each government to carry out surveillance and control in
peacetime in conjunction with NORAD s air defense operations.
As such air sovereignty was formally recognized as a NORAD mission. It
also formally recognized space surveillance as a legitimate activity
Despite the signing of the 1972 ABM treaty (and the 1974 amendment) by
the US and Soviet Union, Canada s 1968 concern over ballistic missile
defense remained. NORAD now had three principle elements : air
sovereignty, deterrence, and should deterrence fail, response against
The agreement was valid for five years.
On the first of July 1976, the Air Force leased the White Alice
Communications System (WACS) to RCA Alascom with an agreement that
communication services would be leased back to the government.
The WACS supported the AC&W radar sites, forward operating bases,
and the DEW line and BMEWS sites.
This was the second of three steps to divest government owned
The US DOD was directed, in 1979, to develop a master plan for
improving air defenses because of growing concerns over the Soviet
development of air launched cruise missiles (ALCMs) and new long-range
bombers (the Bear H and Blackjack). Sea launched cruise missiles (SLCMs)
were also under development by the Soviets.
The fourth renewal of the NORAD agreement became effective on 12 May
1980 extending the 1975 agreement for one year.