MIT Principles of RADAR
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For A great Intro. to the art of radar as it was in WWII Check out a copy of: 

 

PRINCIPLES OF RADAR
Staff of Radar School of Massachusetts Institute of Technology



1946 BOOK, 2ND EDITION, 814 PAGES


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CONTENTS:

I INTRODUCTION
1. Location of Objects
2. Radio Means of Locating Objects
3. Definition of Radar
A. DETECTION BY RADIO ECHOES
4. Frequency-Modulation Systems
5. Frequency-Shift Systems
6. Pulse Systems
7. Types of Data Presentation
8. Pulse Shape, Duration, and Repetition Frequency;
Peak and Average Power
B. OBJECTS
9. Aircraft as Objects
10. Ships as Objects
11. Land and Coastal Objects
12. Projectiles as Objects
C. DETERMINATION OF DIRECTION AND RANGE
13. Determination of Range
14. Determination of Direction
D. RECOGNIZING THE CHARACTERS OF OBJECTS
E. EMPLOYING THE DATA

Chapter II TIMING CIRCUITS
A. CLIPPING CIRCUITS
1. Clipping wlth Diodes
2. Clipping with Amplifiers
3. Clipping with Cathode Followers
B. R-C CIRCUITS
4. Transients in R-C Circuits
5. Saw-Tooth Generator
6. Decoupling Filters and Bias Circuits
7. R-C Peaker
8. Sloping Wavefront Applied to Peaker
9. R-C Coupling Circuits
10. Signal Bias and Clampers
11. Effect of Grid Return
12. Tube and Wiring Capacitances
13. Free-Running Plate-Coupled Multivibrator
14. Driven Plate-Coupled Multivibrator
15. Cathode-Coupled Multivibrator
16. Phantastron Delay Circuit
C. R-L-C CIRCUITS
17. Transients in Parallel R-L-C Circuits
18. Ringing Circuit
19. Pulse Transformer
20. Blocking Oscillator
21. Traveling Waves on Artificial Transmission Lines
22. Reflections at Line Terminals
23. Applications of Artificial Transmission Lines

Chapter III INDICATORS
A. CATHODE-RAY TUBES
1. Electrostatic Cathode-Ray Tubes
2. Magnetic Cathode-Ray Tubes
3. Designations and Ratings of Cathode-Ray Tubes
B. SWEEP-VOLTAGE CIRCUITS
4. Basic Type A Indicator Circuit
5. Methods of Improving the Linearity of Sweep Voltages
6. Phase-Inverter Circuits
7 Delayed Sweeps and Expanded Sweeps
8. Indicators Used with Lobe Switching
9. Type J Presentation
C. SWEEP-CURRENT CIRCUITS
10. Range-Sweep Current from Initial Part of Exponential Rise
11. Range-Sweep Current from a Trapezoidal Voltage
12. R-C Trapezoidal-Voltage Generator
13. Feedback-Amplifier Sweep Circuit
14. Effect of Distributed Capacitance
15. Azimuth-Sweep Circuit for Type B Presentation
16. Requirements for Plan Position Indication
17. Rotating-Coil PPI
18. Electrical Azimuth Sweep for PPI

Chapter IV RECEIVERS
A. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RADAR RECEIVERS
1. Over-all Requirements and Limitations
2. Block Diagram
B. RECEIVER NOISE
3. Nature of Noise
4. Sources of Noise
5. Receiver Input Stages
6. Receiver Noise Figure
C. BANDWIDTH REQUIREMENTS
7 The Problem of Pulse Amplification
8 Analysis of Rectangular Pulses
9 Signal Frequencies in the Receiver
10 Bandwidth in Search-Type Systems
11 Bandwidth in FIre-Control Systems
D. AMPLIFIERS
12. Equivalent Circuits
13. Symbols
14. Video Amplifiers
15. I-F Amplifiers
16. R-P Amplifiers
E. MIXERS
17. Single-Input Mixers
18. Mixer Circuits
19. Crystal Mixers
20. Noise and Gain of Input Stages
P. DETECTORS
21. Diode Detectors
22. Plate-Circuit Detectors
G. LOCAL OSCILLATORS
23. Requirements
24. Triodes
25. Reflex Velocity-Modulated Tubes
H. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL
26. The Discriminator
27. Utilization of Discriminator Output for Frequency Control
J. OPERATION AND TESTING
28. Alignment
29. R-F Tuning Adjustments
50. Testing

Chapter V MAGNETRONS
1. Motion of an Electron in an Electric Field Alone
2. Motion of an Electron in a Magnetic Field Alone
3. Motion of Electrons In Uniform, Mutually Perpendicular Electric and Magnetic Fields
4. Introduction to Magnetron Oscillators
5. Split-Anode Electron-Resonance Magnetron Oscillator, Plane Form
6. Multi-Anode Electron-Resonance Magnetron Oscillator, Cylindrical Form
7. Lumped-Constant Equivalent Circuit of Magnetron Tank Circuit
8. Characteristics of Magnetrons
9. Care of the Magnetron and Magnets
10. Checking the Proper Operation of the Magnetron

Chapter VI MODULATORS
A. PULSE FORMATION BY NETWORKS AND SWITCHES
1. Charging an Open-End Line
2. Pulse Formation by Discharge of an Open-End Line
3. Pulse Formation by a Shorted-End Line
4. Pulse-Forming Networks
5. Switching Devices for Discharging Pulse-Forming Networks
B. LINE-PULSING MODULATORS
6. Charging Methods
7. Rotary-Spark-Gap Modulator
8. Modulator with Saturable-Core Reactor and Inductive-Impulse Charging
C. DRIVER-POWER-AMPLIFIER MODULATORS
9. R-C-Coupled Power Amplifier
10. Transformer-Coupled Power Amplifier
11. Bootstrap Driver
12. Line-Controlled Blocking-Oscillator Driver
13. Delay-Line Controlled Driver
14. Driver Using Shorted-End Line
15. Saturable-Core-Reactor Driver
16. Blocking-Oscillator Modulator

Chapter VII TRIODE TRANSMITTERS
A. TRANSMITTER COMPONENTS
1. Tubes
2. Tuning Elements
3. Parasitic Suppressors
4. Power Supplies
B. SINGLE-TUBE OSCILLATORS
5. Ultra-Audion Oscillator
6. Lighthouse-Tube Oscillator
C. PUSH-PULL OSCILLATORS
7. Tuned-Plate Tuned-Grid Oscillator
8. Timed-Grid Tuned-Cathode Oscillator
9. Tuned-Plate Tuned-Grid Tuned-Cathode Oscillator
D. RING OSCILLATORS
10. Tuned-Grid Tuned-Cathode Oscillator
11. Tuned-Plate Tuned-Cathode Oscillator
12. Tuned-Plate Tuned-Grid Tuned-Cathode Oscillator
E. OUTPUT COUPLING
13. Direct Coupling
14. Balanced-to-Unbalanced Transformers
15. Coupling Loop as Resonant Transformer
16. Coupling Loop with Series Tuning
17. Coupling Loop with Parallel Tuning
l6. Capacitive Coupling
F. PULSING OF TRIODE OSCILLATORS
19 Grid-Leak Bias in Oscillators
20 Modulators for Triode Oscillators
21 Self-Pulsed Oscillators
22 Synchronization of Self-Pulsed Oscillators
23 Line-Controlled Self-Pulsed Oscillators
24 Tuning and Adjusting of Oscillators

Chapter VIII RADIO-FREQUENCY LINES
A. INTRODUCTION
1. Functions of Radio-Frequency Lines in Radar
2. Types of Radio-Frequency Lines
3. Losses
4. Open-Wire Lines
5. Coaxial Lines
6. Two-Conductor Shielded Cable
7. Hollow Wave Guides
8. Radio-Frequency Components
B. THE LONG-LINE EQUATIONS
9. Distributed Constants
10. Representation of Steady-State Alternating Quantities by Complex Numbers
11. Notation
12. The Differential Equations and Their Solution
13. Interpretation of the Equations as Traveling Waves
14. Attenuation
15. Line with Negligible Losses
16. Characteristic Impedance
17. Reflection Coefficient
18. Vector Diagrams of Terminal Voltages fluid Currents
19. Standing WavesóComplete Reflection
20. Standing Waves--Partial Reflection
21. Standing-Wave Ratio
22. Practical Importance of Low Standing-Wave Ratio
23. Power
24. Efficiency
25. Impedance and Admittance
26. Impedance Circle Diagram
27. Examples of the Use of the Circle Diagram
28. Proof of the Circle Diagram
29. The Smith Chart
C. IMPEDANCE MATCHING
30. Matching Requirements During Transmission
31. Types of Matching Devices
32. Methods of Matching an Antenna to the Characteristic Resistance of a Transmission Line
33. Methods of Matching a Transmission Line to a Transmitter
34. Matching Requirements During Reception
35. Prevention of Absorption of Received Power by Transmitter
36. Methods of Matching Receiver to Transmission Line
37. Effect of R-P Loading on Magnetrons
38. Practical Tuning Procedure
39. Fixed Versus Adjustable Matching
D. R-F COMPONENTS OF TYPICAL RADAR SETS
40 Typical 100-Mcps Ground Set
41 Typical 500-Mcps Air-Borne Set
42 Typical 5000-Mcps Air-Borne Set
43 Constants of Coaxial and Open-Wire Lines
44 Some Coaxial-Line Accessories

Chapter IX RADAR ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION RADAR ANTENNAS
1. Reciprocity
2. Terms
3. The Half-Wave Antenna
4. Means of Exciting Half-Wave Antennas
5. Input Impedances of Center-Fed Antennas of Arbitrary Length
6. Adjustment of Antenna Impedance
7. Means of Supporting Half-Wave Antennas
8. The Quarter-Wave Antenna
9. Mechanism of Radiation from a Half-Wave Antenna
10. Fields Around a Half-Wave Antenna When the Radial Distance is Large
11. Polarization
12. Patterns of a Half-Wave Antenna; Pattern Interpretation
13. Vector Diagram for a Half-Wave Antenna
14. A Justifiable Approximation in Computing r
15. Sample Calculation Using Vector Diagram
16. A Principle of Vector Addition
17. Resultant Field of a Simple Array of Half-Wave Antennas
18. Restatement of Results for a Group of Identical Sources
19. Properties of the F and G Factors
20. Examples of Use of Factors in Obtaining Patterns
21. Antenna Connections for Broadside Arrays
22. Method of Feeding Groups of Antennas Out of Phase
23. Elimination of Back Radiation from Broadside Arrays
24. Pattern Composition of a Three-Dimensional Array
25. Sample Calculation of Antenna Pattern
26. Lobe-Switching Connections
27. Broadside Arrays Having Unequal Current Magnitudes
28. Approximate Method of Determining the Beam Angle of Broadside Array
29. Comparison of Directive Antennas
30. Parasitic Antennas
31. Yagi Antennas
32. The Folded Dipole
33. Antennas with Parabolic Reflectors
34. Feeds for Parabolic Antennas
35. Receiving Antennas
36. One-Vay and Two-Way Patterns
37. Antennas for Special Purposes
B. RADAR PROPAGATION
38. Factors Which Influence Radar Propagation
39. Components of Radiation
40. Reflection from a Perfectly Conducting Plane
41. Reflection Coefficients
42. Comparison of Patterns for Horizontal and Vertical Polarization over Sea Water
45. Effect of Earth Reflections on Range
44. Divergence
45. Standard Atmospheric Refraction
46. Radar Horizon
47. Vertical-Coverage Diagrams
48. Nonstandard Refraction
49. Atmospheric Reflections
50. Character of Radar Echoes

Chapter X WAVE GUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS
A. WAVE GUIDES
1. Guided and Unguided Waves
2. Types of Wave Guide
3. Advantages of Hollow Wave Guides
4. Boundary Conditions and Modes
5. Two-Conductor Systems
6. The Rectangular Wave Guide
7. The Guide Wavelength
6. The Circular Wave Guide
9. Impedance in Wave Guides
10. Phase Velocity and Group Velocity
11. Choice of Dimensions and Attenuation
12. The Complete Wave-Guide System
13. Wave-Guide Couplers
14. T Junctions and Directional Couplers
15. Matching Devices
16. Choke Joints
17. Bends and Twists
18. Rotating Joints
19. Radio-Frequency Components of a Typical 10-cm Wave-Guide Radar System
20. Radio-Frequency Components of a Typical 5-cm Wave-Guide Radar System
21. Appendix. Derivation of the Equation for Guide Wavelength
22. Bibliography
B. CAVITY RESONATORS
23. Applications and General Properties of Cavity Resonators
24. The Resonant Wavelength
25. The Q of Cavity Resonators
26. Input Impedance of Cavity Resonators
27. Cavities for Velocity-Modulated Tubes
28. Cavities for Wavemeters
29. T-R Box Cavities
30. Echo Boxes

Chapter XI TRANSMIT-RECEIVE DEVICES
1. Basic T-R Systems
2. Effectiveness of T-R Devices
5. Ultra-Hlgh-Frequency T-R Systems
4. T-R Devices for Coaxial-Line Microwave Systems
5. T-R Devices for Wave-Guide Systems

Chapter XII SYNCHROS AND SERVOMECHANISMS
A. SYNCHROS
1. Construction and Connections of Synchro Motors and Generators
2. Operation of GeneratoróElectrical Zero
3. Operation of Motor
4. Torque-Angle Curve
5. Oscillation Dampers
6. Synchro Control Transformer
7. Differential Synchro
8. Designations of Synchros
9. Synchro Capacitors
10. The Electrical-Zero Autofransformer
11. Geared. Synchro Systems
B. SERVOMECHANISMS
12. Electrical Servo Using Control Transformer as Error Detector
13. Servo with D-C Motor and Ward-Leonard Control System
14. Direct-Current Servo Motor
15. Servo-Amplifier for D-C-Motor Servo
16. Amplidyne Servomechanisms
17. Two-Phase Induction Motor
18. Servomechanisms Using Tvo-Phase Induction Motor
19. Transient Oscillations in Servoaechanisms
20. Sustained Oscillations in Servomechanisms
21. Antihunt Devices

INDEX


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