San Francisco State College TV w/KQED- Beaux Arts Manor
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San Francisco State College


TV instruction at home 

Assimilated closed circuit class TV 


San Francisco State College, with the aid of the Bay Area 
educational television station KQED, began an experimental 
study of educational television during 1956-57. 

The over-all objective of the experiment was to measure the 
effectiveness of television education as opposed to classroom edu­
cation. To do a good job (technically) it was necessary to pro­
cure the services of experienced personnel from station KQED, 
including writers, directors, producers, and staging experts. 
Production of the broadcasts was under the direction of Dr. 
David Parker of State's Radio-TV department. Mr. Orville 
Goldner, Audio-Visual Director of San Francisco State, was the 
Visual Director for the televised classes. Len Hansen and Dick 
Christian were student producers. 

The primary purpose of the TV experiment was to determine 
whether television is recommendable as a remedy for over­
crowded classes. The degree to which TV is inferior or superior, 
the cost of such an adventure, the implications for the college, 
the performance of noncollege groups, and the effect upon the 
instructional staff in preparing and presenting telecourses, are 
also important considerations which may be solved by experi­
mental television. 

For a project that is so vast and has so many implications, 
the planning of the exact procedure was a difficult task. The 
following is a brief resume of this procedure. 

"The experimental (television) and control (normal campus 
class) groups for this study were selected from students who 
volunteered to participate in the project. In cases where students 
were willing to participate in only one of the groups, they were 
assigned to the group of their preference. Those students willing 
to participate in any of the groups were randomly assigned to 
the experimental and control groups. Initial volunteers, when 
assigned to groups, were to have roughly comparable A.C.E. 
and grade point averages. Discrepancies in general ability levels 
among the final student groups are handled statistically. 

"Both practical and research considerations have led to 
modification of the original designation of groups to be used in 
the study. The first of these was the elimination of the control 
group taught by an instructor other than the instructor teaching 
the TV group. Experimentally, it did not seem feasible to handle 
the instructor introduced by this. And practically, there loomed 
the problem of finding control subjects who would take a heavy 
afternoon schedule of classes. Therefore, just one control group, 

(Continued on page 21) 

Coordinator of TV Research Project 

DR. DAYI D PARKER, producer 


LEN HANSEN, student associate producer 

DICK CHRISTIAN, student directoqo 

--~-- -~ 

a normal campus section of 45 students, taught by the television 
professor, is used. 

"The second deviation from the original proposal was the 
addition of another TV group. The original proposal for this 
study called for the use of two TV sections with 45 students in 
each. At the April meeting of the advisory board for this project, 
it was suggested that an additional TV section be scheduled to 
meet for the television broadcasts in a campus classroom pro­
vided with television sets. Such a group, simulating the 'closed 
circuit' telecourse situation used on a number of college earn­
puses today, permits comparisions to be made among three 
modes of course presentation (1) a normal clasroom situa­
tion, (2) a telecourse presentation to those students at home, 
an d (3) a telecourse attended by students in a classroom. 

"As originally planned, all groups for each course pursue 
the same course objectives, use the same texts, have the same 
assignments and supplementary readings, and take the same 
examinations. For a three-hour course presented as a telecourse 
there were two 45-minute broadcasts weekly. And a two-hour 
discussion period on campus biweekly. In the case of the 
at-home groups and the control class on campus, all meetings 
are handled by the professor teaching on television. For the 
on-campus TV group, the biweekly discussions are handled by 

(Continued on page 22) 


a different professor. The introduction of this instructor variable 
in the discussions of the on-campus TV group is not as clear 
cut as having all meetings handled by the same professor, but 
this change was deemed a reasonable concession to the reality 
of many closed circuit situations." 

President Leonard initiated the idea of television courses at 
San Francisco State because of overcrowded classes which are 
becoming a serious problem. The Ford Foundation, which is 
sponsoring other projects of college television, responded with 
a $125,000 grant. Then Mr. Lyle Nelson of San Francisco State 
went to work. He was instrumental in seeing that the early stages 
of the television project were carried out with such care that 
the future program could run smoothly. At this point Dr. Robert 
Dreher was appointed director of the experimental study of 
Educational Television. 

The teachers who would instruct the courses on television 
were then chosen. Dr. Shepard Insel (Psychology 10.1); Dr. 
Thomas Lantos (Social Science 30) ; Dr. Mayo Bryce with Dr. 
John Tegnell, iules Irving, and Welland Lathrop (Creative Arts 
10) ; and Dr. John Clark (English 6.1) were the teachers appear· 
ing in the first experiments. 

The innovator is constantly faced with difficulties and Dr. 
Dreher, director of the experiment, was no exception. However, 
he stated that no great obstacles were presented, except short 
interruptions which were quickly adjusted. Two such interrup­
tions were the scheduling and bad TV reception due to Twin 
Peaks interfering with the TV signaL The first problem arose 
when not enough students could be found to take late afternoon 
classes. The second problem was solved in January by moving 
the KQED transmitter to the peak of San Bruno mountain. In 
this new location the transmitter sent its signal, un interfered, to 
all parts of San Francisco. 


Many schools in the United States are giving telecourses, but 
only limited research is taking place. San Francisco State is the 
only college at present doing such extensive research. State is 
dealing with regular college pupils, and studying reactions and 
personality factors instead of only studying examination results. 
Although no data that are conclusive enough to report have yet 
been received, there is evidence that the program is going along 
as planned, and another and even larger grant by the Ford Foun­
dation has been received to further the experimental study of 
Educational Television at San Francisco State College. 

• • 

. beaux arts manor 

Every other Sunday afternoon on KRON-TV, Channel 4, 
the Bay Area TV audience is entertained by a show produced 
and directed by students and faculty of the San Francisco 
State College. 

Listed on the program as the Beaux Arts Manor - a title 
which means quite literally, "a gathering place of the fine 
arts," Beaux Arts Manor is a loosely structured and informal 
performance in which student TV professionals-to-be and 
gifted artists of the Creative Arts Division of the College 
combine their talents to produce a half-hour show. 

Fundamentally, the Beaux Arts Manor production provides 
valuable training experience for those who plan to make a 
career in TV and at the same time offers young artists study­
ing at the college an opportunity to sing, to act, to dance, or 
to display their virtuosity on orchestral instruments before 
a TV audience. In addition, through the media of this program, 
which is written and produced by students and faculty of the 
Radio-TV department, the viewing public is given a picture 
of the many activities provided by the Creative Arts Division 
of the College. 

The Beaux Arts Manor is the second in a series of TV pro­
grams produced at San Francisco State. 

Back in September of last year, KRON-TV, as a public 
service, invited the Radio-TV department of the College to 





create and produce a half-hour Sunday after­
noon show for television. 

Delighted with the opportunity, the Radio­
TV staff came up with a show called People 
with a Future. The program explored various 
departments of the College and featured among 
others, Industrial Arts, AFROTC and an origi­
nal pantomime. 

The series was discontinued in December, 
1956, however the student- faculty production 
staff felt that the lack of continuity in the theme 
of this show was a major fault. Of necessity, 
People with a Future was a show which had to 
present a completely new set of department 
activities every time it went on the air. 

Beaux Arts Manor, the present show, which 
was first presented in January this year, offers 
wide avenues for exploration and possesses a 
strong theme of continuity. Its producers now 
see it as a possible permanent fixture on the 
KRON-TV Sunday afternoon bill of fare. 






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