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Volume Number 2 Issue 1 December 1990 The K.D. Smith Memorial Issue
Solid-State Technology

 

Note many of these are  published on www.smecc.org now in cleaned up form. We are retaining this  index page due to the fact it is already found it's way into many search engines

 

Family and Friends Remember K.D. Smith

Dave Smith, Ian Ross, James Early, Robert Ryder

Early Days of the Transistor

John Bardeen

Transistors or Serendipity

Cullen Moore

Echo and Telstar

John Pierce

The Friendly Effect in Transistors

Robert Ryder

1951 Transistor Symposium At Murray Hill

Duplicating Ma Bell's Cooking

Morgan McMahon

The Diffusion Process

John Fairfield

Telstar - Dawn of a New Age

James Early

Changes in Solid State Devices Since Manufacture

Howard Dicken

Early Solid-State Work at RCA, and Other Stories

Ivan Saddler

The K.D. Smith Collection

A.C. Dickieson, Telstar's Project Manager

The Life of K.D. Smith at Bell Laboratories

Edward Sharpe

The Southwest Museum Of Electricity And Communications
Address: 2224 West Desert Cove #205 Phoenix Arizona 85029 USA
All Material Copyrighted By The Southwest Museum Of Electricity And Communications
FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS IS LOCATED ON THE PAGE 84!

In Memoriam... Kenneth D. Smith

1905 - 1990
We at the museum regret the passing of Kenneth D. Smith. He was one of the people who made a difference in advancing the technology on which the world has come so much to depend. K.D., as his friends called him, spent his working life at Bell Laboratories. He contributed to many different projects ranging from Proximity Fuses and Radar during World War II, the TD-2 trans-continental microwave relay system, and early development work on transistors. In addition to transistors, K.D. was involved in the Bell Solar Battery project, both in the 1950's, as well as working on the solar cells that went up on Telstar. Other areas that K.D. was able to explore during his service were high frequency transistors, power transistors, varistors, rectifiers, and many other solid state components. He also made an unusual contribution in that he preserved many experimental and development model semiconductor devices and publications from the late 1940's thru the 1960's. These items are the core of "The K.D. Smith Collection".

Besides being an excellent innovator, K.D. Smith was a fine human being. Of all of the people I have spoken to about K.D., not a one had a bad thing to say about him. In the following pages you will learn what K.D. was involved with, as well as getting a picture of how his part fit into the entire technological scheme of things. You will also read what some of his co-workers thought of him. Mr. Smith will be missed by his family, his friends, and those who were fortunate to meet him. - EAS




Editor's Corner By Edward A. Sharpe, Archivist Southwest Museum of Electricity and Communications.
Welcome to the second volume of VINTAGE ELECTRICS! A lot has transpired in the last year since we met here! In this issue we are going to explore the early history of the transistor and other solid state marvels. In addition, we will explore the communications satellite, Telstar.

Transistors and the space age! The tiny device that has changed all of our lives is included in almost every piece of technology that we handle in a day. Had not the pioneering engineers and scientists done the development work, the items we use today would be vastly more bulky. From the exploratory work on transistors and diodes came IC's, and the size continued to decrease!

It does seem perhaps odd, that what we considered modern day marvels not that long ago, are now in a museum. As technology marches on, what was a marvel only yesterday is replaced by yet something more fantastic. To keep our country on course, not only do we need to look to the future, but also study our past history, both the achievements and the failures.

The Museum has acquired the collection of early semiconductors that belonged to K.D. Smith. Along with the semiconductors there are early prototype Western Electric tubes. Through the generosity of K.D. Smith's son, Dave Smith, we are fortunate to have many of his original notebooks on file in the library, to serve not only us during our passage through this existence, but also for the use of those that will follow us.

Joining us here I present a group of writers who have all had some experience with early solid state technology, and some of them were even K.D. Smith's colleagues back in the early solid state efforts at Bell Telephone Laboratories at Murray Hill, New Jersey.

When I surveyed the K.D. Smith collection, these innovators were essentially my teachers and guideposts. Without their help the materials you are viewing would not quite be in the order that they are now. I also have them to thank for the `personalized' education in semiconductor development that I have received!

I would like at this time to both introduce and thank Morgan McMahon, Jim Early, Ivan Saddler, Bob Ryder, John Bardeen, Howard Dicken, John Fairfield, Cullen Moore, John Pierce and A.C. Dickieson. Not only was their intellectual support necessary, but their contributions here in the form of articles and interviews are a valuable asset for those that share our interest in the future.

In addition the following people deserve a big round of applause as well! Lee Ann Sharpe; for her tolerance during construction of this journal, as well as for many hours of proof reading. Gerry Higgins for assistance in proof reading and organization of artifacts; the personnel at Bell Laboratories for their permission to use articles and their encouragement. Many thanks to Carol
Sadowski in particular!

The encouragement and support shown to the Southwest Museum of Electricity and Communications and VINTAGE ELECTRICS by those in the Radio Amateur field, particularly those who are members in the Quarter Century Wireless Association ,The Society of Wireless Pioneers and the American Radio Relay League, has been splendid. This technically aware militia has resulted in the preservation of many items that otherwise would have taken up the residence of a landfill.

None of the K.D. Smith Collection would be here had not Clem Chase, after getting a call from the Smith family, taken the time to pile much of what we now house as the K.D. Smith Collection into his pickup truck and driven it up to Phoenix, where it was sorted and brought down to the museum by Gerry Higgins and Harry Snyder.

We also acknowledge the encouragement and support shown us by members of the engineering community. These fine fellows have contributed time in tracking down information, spotting artifacts out in `the rough', bringing by old engineering text books and in countless other ways.

To the younger folks that visit, you are indeed our prime motive force of encouragement! The amazed look in your faces and the questions you ask, reinforce that the actions we are taking to preserve our technological past is worthwhile! Although those of us who have passed through the phases of technology enjoy the items on display, in reality, the museum is here for you!

The articles that you are about to explore are a mixture of information from the aforementioned authors, as well as release articles reprinted form the Bell Laboratories RECORD magazine. Some of the reprinted articles have been edited due to space concerns. Not wishing to inundate our general readership with differential equations, we have removed some of the `heavy' parts. Of course these magazines, as well as the more technical BELL SYSTEM TECHNICAL JOURNALS are available at the museum for the person who wishes to dig deeper.

One thing all of us should consider; vintage electrical technology daily hits the land fills across America. Only if we make a dedicated effort, will the artifacts and literature of our technological history be preserved. It is up to all of us who know the history of an item to make sure that it will be kept secure for future scientists and engineers to study. We can not rely on the actions of our heirs to accomplish it, as they may not understand the implication that an artifact had on the development of a technology. It is up to you and me in the present life to accomplish this.

The museum is seeking items that would be of interest to the people who indulge themselves in research at our facility, as well as those younger folks who come just to find out how an old telephone or radio works. Please do not dispose of anything before contacting us! -EAS



The Letter From Ian Ross, President of AT&T Bell Laboratories About K.D. Smith





Table of Contents

In Memoriam... Kenneth D. Smith, By Edward A. Sharpe 2

Editor's Corner By Edward A. Sharpe, Museum Archivist . 3

The Letter From Ian Ross, President of AT&T Bell Laboratories About K.D. Smith. 4

K.D. Smith Memoriam By Dave Smith 5

K. D. Smith - Memories By James M. Early 6

In Memoriam - Kenneth D. Smith By Robert Ryder 7

K. D. Smith and the Telephone Click Reducer By Dave Smith ..................................................8

The Early Days Of The Transistor, 1946 To 1951. By Professor John Bardeen 10

About John Bardeen 16

John Bardeen, Transistor Pioneer Dies at 82 (Added since release of V.E.) 17

The World Mourns The Passing Of A Great Physicist By Edward A. Sharpe 17

The Phototransistor, With Permission, Bell Laboratories RECORD May 1950 18

The Coaxial Transistor, With Permission, Bell Laboratories RECORD April 1949 19

The Junction Transistor, Bell Laboratories RECORD, August 1951 20

SMEC Update. 22

Grown Junction Transistor Development K. D. Smith, Bell Laboratories RECORD 23

Forty-Year Old Plastic Transistors By Howard Dicken 27

1951 Transistor Symposium at Murray Hill Bell Telephone RECORD November 1951 28

The Great Transistor Symposium Of 1951, An Attendee's Viewpoint by Morgan E. McMahon 29

About Morgan McMahon 30

Duplicating Ma Bell"s Cooking By Morgan E. McMahon 31

Exploratory Development Characteristics For The BTL M1752 Transistor 32

SMEC Update 33

Teachers Taught About Transistors, Bell Telephone Laboratories Record Aug. 1952 34

Junction Tetrode Transistor By R. L. Wallace, Jr. Transmission Research 35

About R. L. Wallace, Jr., 37

The "Friendly Effect" In Early Transistors. By Robert Ryder 39

About Robert M. Ryder . 40

Some Transistor Chronology From 40

The Bell Telephone Laboratories RECORD . 40

The Development of Diffusion For Semiconductor Device Fabrication By John Fairfield 41

About John Fairfield 42

The Transistor or Serendipity and the Space Age. By W. Cullen Moore 43

The Human Side Of Early Electronics And Semiconductors By Ivan Saddler 44

About Ivan R. Saddler 47

Ed Sharpe's First Encounter With Transistors 47

The K.D. Smith Collection. By Edward A. Sharpe Archivist 48

The Life Of K. D. Smith At Bell Laboratories By Edward A. Sharpe 52

The Bell Solar Battery By D. M. Chapin, C. S. Fuller, and G. L. Pearson, BTL RECORD 58

About The Authors 60

Bell Solar Battery in Experimental Service, Bell Laboratories RECORD, November 1955 61

Echo - America's First Communications Satellite By John R. Pierce 63

About John R. Pierce . 66

Index

Symbols

100 foot balloon satellite63

1866; first trans-Atlantic wireless telegraph71

1901; first trans-Atlantic voice communication71

1927; first trans-Atlantic telephone cable71

1929,60

193053,60

1930-194052

193152

193574

193652

193755

1937 notebook55

1941 until 194352

1941-194452

194274

1944-194552

194564,74

1946-194753

194713,16,53

194816,31,40

1948-195153

194915

195015,40

195116,40,53,71

1951 Transistor Symposium at Murray Hill28

1951-195253,54

195215,40,49,51,63

1952 marked the turning point15

1952-195654

195340,54,60

195415,58,63,73,74

195554,61,66,73,74

195654,71

1956-Retirement55

195754,64,73

1957.54

195850,64,65,74,75

195964,66,71

196063,65,66,69,71,81

196155,72

196267,69,71,72,73

196373,74

1963.55

196553

196966

197166

1980's55

2N13545

3.7 and 4.2 Gigahertz.53

4 Gigahertz up and 6 Gigahertz down76

41649

432 silicon cells61

4A23

4A germanium grown junction transistor23

4C transistor26

50 low altitude satellites80

50 mW power handling level54

525 horizontal lines46

60-foot transmitting antenna for around $200,000.65

"75 Years In A Wonderful Life" is by Harald Friis75

94552

95554

A

A giant has passed from our midst (Comment about John Bardeen)17

"A New Microwave Television System" (Co-authored by K. D. Smith)53

A-185826

A. C. Dickieson71

A. E. Anderson28,30

A. Tradup28

A.A. Roetken53

A.C Dickieson77

A.C. Dickieson53,75

A.I.E.E. Winter Convention19

A.T.&T.67

A169834

A185850

A1858 Grown Junction Transistor50

AAAS71

acceptor (p-type)23

acceptor impurities11

Acoustical Society of America37

active communication satellite66

active satellites72, 73

ad hoc panel on satellite communication64

Advanced Electronic Development Laboratory31

Advent64,73, 80

Advent, a proposed synchronous satellite73

ADVENT debacle80

Advisory Group on Electron Devices71

Aerobee launch vehicle44

Aerospace Corporation66

"Aerospace Men Of The Year" in 196275

AF Cambridge Research Laboratories43, 44

AFCRL43,44

Affel, H. A.28,29

AFIP46

Africa80

AIEE53

Air Force28,40,43,72,75

Air Force Assoc.75

Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories43

Air Force summer study64

Al Goldsmith45,46

Alamogordo, New Mexico44

Alan Glover44

Alan Wilson10

Aleutians74

Allentown40

Allentown, Pa.40

Alloy50

Alloy16

Alloy junction16

Alloy transistors45

Alloying59

Alpha25, 27

Althea Harmer Bardeen16

Aluminum coated mylar64

Aluminum for a receiving antenna65

AM radios39

Amateur astronomer7

Amateur radio7

Amer. Soc. Eng. Educ.16

America went to war52

American67,73,77

American Academy of Sciences16

American British plan77

American Electro-Chemical Society42

American electronic industry28

American flag flying67

American GO Association8

American missile programs74

American Philosophical Society16

American Physical Society16,42

American-Japanese underwater 128 channel cable80

Americus, Georgia26,61, 62, 77

Amplification of an AC. signal11

Amplifiers13, 26,63

Amplifying device20

AN/APQ 1352

AN/APQ 2352

AN/PRC 2545

Analogy23

Anderson28,30

Andover67,68,69,72

Andover antenna67

Andover, Maine69,72

Andover, Me67

Andover radome69

Anisotropic dielectric waveguides71

Antenna on top used for79

April Fool43

APS71

Archivist48

Arizona42,48

Arizona Electrostatic Discharge Society47

Arizona State University47

Armed Forces Institute of Pathology46

Army28,40

Army Electronics Research and Development Command45

ARPA64

Arsenic42,59

Art Crawford65

Arthur C. Clarke63, 64, 73

Arthur C. Crawford65

Arthur Clarke's book, Ascent to Orbit73

Artifact13,48,50,51,52

Artifacts7

Ascent to Orbit, a Scientific Autobiography73

Associated Press67

Associates of K.D. Smith48

Astounding Science Fiction63

Astronauts78

Asynchronous low orbit satellite71

AT&T39,63,69,71,72,73,79,82,83

AT&T Bell Laboratories63, 69

Atkins43

Atlanta61

Atmosphere43

Atoms59

Audio Engineering"43

Automatic routing40

B

B-power43

B. Lax, M. I. T.34

B. R. Russell, U. of Penn.34

"Back dope"39

Backbone trans-continental microwave relay53

Baker64

BALLOON SATELLITE ORBITS; DELAYED MESSAGE63

balloon-type satellites63

Baltimore46

Barbara Barosa47

Bardeen9,13,14,15,16,17,21,29,31,34,49,

53,77

Bare Solar Cells In Earth Space Orbits55

Barnes, Sandy31

Barney Oliver75

Barrier11

Base electrode14

Base layer25

Base material44

Base-region minority carriers29

Battery charging tests58

Battle of Britain39

Bell15,16,17,48,51,71,80,81

Bell Laboratories6,11, 13, 16, 17,22, 39,43,48,49,50,51,52,53,54, 55,56,57,59,61,63,64,65,67,71,72,73,74,

75,78,80,82,83

Bell Laboratories RECORD49,52,58,

77,78

Bell Laboratories RECORD May 195018

Bell Laboratories RECORD April 194919

Bell Laboratories RECORD, August 195120

Bell Laboratories RECORD, July - August 196267

Bell Laboratories RECORD, November 195561

Bell Laboratories staff50

Bell Laboratories status reports51

Bell Laboratories TRANSISTOR TECHNOLOGY54

Bell Labs Ge, grown junction, NPN transistor27

Bell Labs GO Club8

Bell Labs in 1951 for university faculty16

BELL LABS NEWS53

Bell Patent Department48,51

Bell scientists21

Bell Solar Battery26,48, 50, 51, 54,58,59,60,61

Bell Solar Battery in Experimental Service61

Bell System29,48,52,54,67,71,72

Bell System DATASPEED67

Bell System Technical Journal20, 49, 52

Bell Telephone63

Bell Telephone Laboratories16,21,26,

28,29,34,37,39,40,48,51,54,56,66,79

Bell Telephone Laboratories Record Aug. 195234

BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES NOTES49

Bell Telephone Laboratories RECORD40, 54

Bell Telephone operating companies67

Bell Telephone RECORD November 195128

Bells Labs75

"Beta"41

Better rural telephone service61

Biased14

Bill Jakes65,66

Bill Pfann39

Binary sequence78

Bipolar16

Bipolar transistor14, 71

Bloch10

Bloch theory of energy bands10

Blount40

Bob Caruthers30

Bob Hope75

Bob Ryder22,30,33,48,49

bond24,25

Bonding36

Bonding machine37

Bonding operation35

Bonestell63

Books on solid state49

Boonton Radio Corporation `Q METER'52

Booster72

Boron59

Boron (p) doping44

Boron compound60

Boston University44

Boston University.43

Boundary layer43

Brattain9,10, 11,16,17,29,31,34,53,77

Bridgers36

Britain67,73

British68,72,76,77,82

British IRE convention55

British Post Office76

British way!82

British were very unhappy77

Broad-band frequency modulation,71

Broadband communication transmission67

Broadband microwave radio systems26

Broadening of p-layer25

Brooklyn82

Brooklyn Polytechnic82, 83

Brown55,69,74,78,79

BTL31,32,51,79

BTL Seminar29

Buckley Prize16

Bulk13

Bulk and surface properties11

Bulk to P-type11

Bulova45

Buried channel CCD imagers (James M. Early)71

Burkhard34

Burt Miller31

C

C. Chapin Cutler65, 68

C.E. Atkins43

Cal Quate64

Cal-Tech63, 66

Calculate path losses and antenna gain80

Calculations for active satellites63

California66, 71,82

California Institute of Technology63

Calvin S. Fuller58, 60, 61

Calvin Tomkins74

Cambridge,, (U.K.)16

Cambridge Research Laboratories43. 44

Can about as big as the eraser13

Cape Canaveral67,68,72

Cape Canaveral, Florida. Within hours of the launch67

Cape Kennedy72

Carborundum24

Carbrey36

Card translator40

Carefree Arizona48

Carrier generator44

Carrier injection15

Carrier" principle62

Carrier systems52

Carriers10,11

Caruthers28,30

Catalyzers25

Cat's whisker11

CBS45,46

CBS system45,46

Cell support70

Center for Advanced Study of the University16

Center For Computer Research In Music66

Centralized reference resource51

CEO of Computer Exchange17

Ceramic cell support70

Chancellor Morton Weir17

Chapin58,60, 61

Charge-coupled devices40

Charges a storage battery60

Chase48

Chemical etch35

Chemical etchant45

Chernov72

Chesley Bonestell63

Chrominance46

Ciccolella23

Circular polarized wave77

Cited Clarke's paper in everything we published" (Telstar, Pierce)64

Clare Thornton45

Clarke64,73,74

Clem Chase48

Co-development of the theory of superconductivity17

Co-inventor of the transistor17

Coaxial cable terminals52

Coaxial packages31

Coaxial point-contact transistor31, 19

Collect artifacts49

Collection came to the museum48

Collection of preliminary sketches49

Collection of transistors51

Collector13,14

Collector space charge6

Color filters45

Color television44,46

Command and telemetry79

Command channel circuit78, 79

Command channel problems77

Command guidance system67

Common carrier band76

Common carrier 4 to 676

Common emitter circuit25

Common-emitter junction transistor circuits30

Communication satellite53, 55, 63,64,73, 79

Communications79

Communications Satellite Act on August 1, 196273

Communications Satellite Corporation73, 74

Communications systems66

Computer Exchange17

COMSAT (Communications Satellite Corporation)73, 74

Conduction band10,11,13

Conductivity of the aluminum coating64

Converts sunlight directly60

"Cooperative diffusion"42

Coradeschi61

Cornell79

Coupling, J. J. 66

Courier74,76

Crawford65,66

Crawford's Hill, New Jersey63, 66, 72

Creation of a development device54

Crude prototype stage54

Crystal59

Crystal defects42

Crystal detector51

Crystal lattice58

Crystal perfection and purity15

Crystal-growing machine36

Crystodyne Principle",43

Crystron43

Cullen Moore43,75

Current injection15

Current transmission factor alpha25

Current-amplifying transistor40

Cutler65,68

D

D. F. Ciccolella23

D. Houk40

D. W. Gade, Iowa State34

Damage by radiation69

DARPA64

Dartmouth College26,42

Daryl M. Chapin58, 60, 61

Data67

DATASPEED Bell System data communications)67

Date of the invention (Transistor)13

Dave Smith49

Davey28,30

David Packard75

David Sarnoff44

Dean Wooldridge31

Decay rates on the solar cells78

December 23, 194713

Defense Department45

DeGaul77

Delhi, India16

Delta vehicle72

Demise of the TD-2 system53

Demonstration model14

Department of Defense64

Depletion of minority carriers51

Depletion region70

Des Moines Iowa66

Design theory of bipolar transistors71

Design was before it's time57

Development13

Development and manufacture of RADAR52

Development Model Transistor50

Development model power point contact bead transistor50

Development model power point contact diode50

Development model tetrode transistor50

Development of diode and transistors55

Development of test methods52

Development prototype26

Development to production26

Device people (at BTL)79

Dial switching equipment40

Diamond heat sinks7

diamond-faced wheel24

Dichroic filters45

Dicken22,27,48

Dickieson53,71,75,76,77,78,79,80,81,82,83

Dickten35,37,50

Died Jan. 30, 1991 of a heart attack (John Bardeen)17

Diffusant42

Diffuse14,61

Diffused junction transistor16

Diffused junction transistors16

Diffused N+ surface layer70

Diffusion42,59

Diffusion coefficient42

Diffusion experiment60

Diffusion For Semiconductor Device Fabrication41

Diffusion into solids58

Diffusion methods58

Diffusion process41,59

Diffused Base50

Diminishment in solar cell output78

Diode39,41,50, 51, 55

Diodes protect meters (K. D. Smith)54

Dislocations42

Disoriented crystal debris24

Disturbed layer24

Ditzenberger60

Division 4, National Defense Research Committee52

DM Data Inc.27

Don Williams73

Donor (n-type)23

Donor and acceptor impurities11

Donor impurities10

Donors10

Don't Write, Telegraph63

Door-knob tube43

Dopant42

Dopant concentration41

Dopant depths41

Doped24,59

Doping44

Dorlon28

Double surface transistor31

Dozen stamps in various countries that commemorate Telstar76

Dr. Al Goldsmith45,46

Dr. Alan Glover44

Dr. B. Lax, M. I. T.34

Dr. Bardeen10

Dr. Bardeen's letter to the museum34

Dr. Charles Bardeen16

Dr. Charles R. and Althea Harmer Bardeen16

Dr. Dickieson83

Dr. Goldmark46

Dr. Goldsmith46

Dr. Harper Q. North31

Dr. J. B. Fisk67

Dr. J. N. Shive40

Dr. John Bardeen9,34

Dr. Kelly28

Dr. Marcus O'Day43

Dr. Peter Goldmark45,46

Dr. Pierce63,83

Dr. Shockley20,21,40

Dr. Thornton45

Dr. Werner von Braun43

Dryden72

Duality29

DUPLICATING MA BELL'S COOKING31

Dynamic Cutoff of Vacuum Tubes (K. D. Smith)52

E

E. D. Kolb36

E. Dickten35,37

E. F. (Gene) O'Neill69

E. J. Scheibner, Ill. Inst. of Tech.34

Earliest spacecraft to have a song composed about it (Telstar)75

Early, James M.22,48,49,51,55,62,69,70,

71,80

Early Bird73

Early design P on N50

Early Developments15

Early Effect71

Early literature51

Early Point Contact Transistor50

Earth-coverage diagrams64

Earth's magnetosphere69

Easy to obtain licenses15

Echo(metalized balloon) 63,64,65,66,71,72,73,74,

79, 80,83

Echo suppressors on long cables80

ECL71

Economic effect of the transistor17

"Economical Diffused Junction Varistors" (K. D. Smith)54

ECS71

ED Adcom71

Ed Sharpe's First Encounter With Transistors47

ED Transactions71

Editor's Corner3

Edward A. Sharpe17, 47, 48,52,75

Edward Sharpe: CEO of Computer Exchange17

Effects of that high altitude test79

Efficiency of about 6 per cent59

Eisenhower63,66

El Paso, Texas43

Electric eye18,40

Electric field11

Electrical Engineering magazine31

Electricity and Communications48

Electron concentration?13

Electron Device Research Conference69

Electron-hole pairs58, 59

Electronic Development Department40

ELECTRONICS54

Electronics51

Electronics in space76,80

Electrons14,58

Electrons and holes10

Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors By W. Shockley21

Electrons and holes in semiconductors15

Electrons injected14

Electrostatic potential11

Electrostatic precipitators45

Electrostatic shielding19

Elizabeth73

Ely28

Emitter14

Encapsulate44

Energy band diagrams11

Engineers Club83

England76,81,82

Englewood, N. J.40

English72,76

English terminal at Goonhilly Downs72

Enlargement of the base layer25

ERPE82

Etch24

Ethylene-glycol43

Europe73,76

Evaporated gold spot13

Expansion of university programs16

Experimental examples48

Experimental field effect amplifier13

Experimental Service, .62

Exploded in the upper atmosphere69

EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE BTL M-175232

Explorer78

Extra-Terrestrial Relays64,74

Extrinsic10

F

F. E. Blount40

F. E. Dorlon28

F. R. Kappel67

F.M. Smits55

F.M. terminal systems53

Fabrication41

Fabrication required great advances15

Fabrication techniques23

Facsimile67

Facsimile transmission67

Facts About the Bell Solar Battery60

Faculty member at the university17

Failure in the command channel78

Fairchild71

Fairfield, John41,42,51

Fairfield Company42

Falcon missile31

FCC45,46, 66,76

Fears of astronauts78

Federal Communications Commission45, 46, 66, 76

Felker28,30

Fermi level11

Fiber optic cable80

Fiber optic networks53

Field effect amplifier131

Field or bulk effects43

Field tests52

Field-effect transistor11, 16,39

Fifteen times more efficient60

Film11

Finney63

Fips43

First bipolar transistor10

First junction transistors15

First model, called Type A (Transistor)13

First point-contact transistors39

First television relay via satellite51

First Telstar broadcast69

First trans-Atlantic telephone cable, 195671

First trans-Atlantic television transmission, 196271

First transatlantic television programs72

First transistorized repeater experiment50

First use of the satellite67

Fisk64,67

Five watt transmitter79

Flood58

Florida67

Flow of electrons and holes in semiconductors15

FM with feedback65

Formal presentations and papers54

"FORTY-YEAR OLD PLASTIC TRANSISTORS" (Howard Dicken)27

Forward direction14

Fourth electrode40

Fox Movietone82

Foy, P.W.34

France67,69,73,81

Frank J. Early71

Franklin Institute16

Franklin Medal, Franklin Inst.,16

Frederick Kappel71

Free carriers11

French67,68,72,76,77

French picked up Telstar right away77

French terminal at Pleumeur Badeau72

Frequency cut-off of alpha25

Frequency cutoff25

Frequency question76

Friedolf M. Smits70

Friendly Effect39,40

Friis53,65,75

Fuller58, 60,61

Future of telecommunications74

Future world of solid state in 195153

G

G. Burkhard, U. of Colo.34

G. J. Stiles68

G. K. Teal20,40

G. L. PEARSON58

G. L. Pearson28,58,61

G. Raisbeck28

Gade34

Galena detector47

Gallium42

Gaseous atmosphere61

GE43,51

GE indium-germanium6

Gemmological Institute of America47

Gene(E. F.) O'Neill71

General David Sarnoff44, 46

General Electric16,31

Generator of minority carriers26

Geo-synchronous80

George Brown74

George O. Smith74

George Washington University Law School47

Georgetown University16

Georgia50,61,77

Gerald L. Pearson10, 29, 60

Gerdsen61

German43

Germanium11,13,14,18,23, 24,31,34,44,45,51

Germanium alloy transistors45

Germanium bar23

Germanium grown junction transistor23,24

Germanium transistors44

Germanium wedge19

Germanium-gold alloy region24

Germans77

Gerry Higgins48

Getter42

Glennan66

Glit31

Glover44

Gls with walkie talkies communicating by satellite64

Go7

GO Ban7

Gold13, 79

Gold spot13

Gold wire25,36

Gold-germanium alloy24

Goldmark45,46

Goldsmith45,46

Goldstone64,66

Goonhilly Down, England67, 72

Gorden Teal54

Gordon Raisbeck28,29,30

Gordon Teal15,21

Government16

Government agencies28,40

Government contracts51

Gradients at the junctions41

Gravity-gradient attitude control66

Gray code30

Great Depression of the 1930's7

Great Physicist17

Great reading, not only for the beginner54

Ground station79,82

Ground terminal72,74

Grow crystals15

Grown by pulling from a melt15

Grown crystal51

Grown junction45. 50

Grown junction n-p-n transistor26

Grown junction tetrode transistor50, 54

Grown Junction Transistor54

Grown junction transistor21, 22,24,45, 54

Grown Junction Transistor Development54

Grown Junction Tetrode Transistors Made by Dickten50

Grown Junction Transistor Development23

Gulf Research and Development Corp.16

H

H. A. Affel28,29

H. B. Ely28

H. E. Bridgers36

Hall16

Harald Friis65,75

Harold Rosen73,74

Harper Q. North31

Harris28,30

Harry Nyquis83

Harry Snyder48

Harvard University16,37

Hermann Oberth73

Hewlett, Bill75

Hewlett Packard75

HF radio80

Higgins48

High altitude atomic tests55

High altitude Geo-synchronous satellite80

High altitude nuclear test77

High altitude satellite80

High altitudes43

High energy electrons and ions69

High Power Point Contact Development Model Transistor50

High-efficiency solar cells69

High-frequency tetrode26

High-power transistor15

High-quality single crystals15

His efforts developing the transistor (Bardeen)17

Historical development of solid state51

Historical examples50

Historical grouping50

Historical samples50

Holes10,14, 58

Holloman Air Force Base44

Hollywood53

Holmdel65,67,68,75

Holmdel Laboratory65,73

Holmdel test68

Holovitz11

Home Secretary72

Hope75

Horn antenna65

Hornbeck79

Hotel Suburban69

Houk40

Howard Dicken22,27,48

Hudspeth73

Hugh L. Dryden72

Hughes32,51, 73,79,81

Hughes Aircraft31,47,73

Hughes Aircraft Company29

Hughes Aircraft's semiconductor Division30

Hughes point-contact transistor32

Hughes Syncom 273

Hundred-megahertz bandwidth71

Hunt Club69

Hybrid microcircuit47

Hydrogen bomb69

I

"I knew the transistor was important" (John Bardeen)17

Ian Ross4

IBM42

ICE27

IEEE10, 63,71

IEEE PROCEEDINGS71

Illinois16

Image Orthicon45

IMPATT Diode51

Impurities11,42

Impurity ions10

India16

Indian Institute of Technology16

Indian National Science Academy16

Induced charges11

Inert gas42

Ingots11

Inside The Transistor50

Inst. of Electronics and Telecommunications (India)16

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers63

Institute of Radio Engineers20,63

Integrated Circuits44

International Society of Hybrid Microcircuits47

Interstate 1049

Intrinsic barrier transistor6

Intrinsic Semiconductor10

Invention of the point-contact transistor14

Inversion layer11

Ion implantation42

Ion implanter71

Ionizing radiation70

Ionospheric signal receivers44

Ions69

Iowa66

Iowa State University27

IRE63

IRE Semiconductor Research Conference June 195354

"Island Transistor" (As per K. D. Smith)57

Ivan R. Saddler22,44, 47

J

J. A. Ditzenberger60

J. A. Morton20,28

J. Bardeen31

J. H. Felker28,30

J. H. Scoff58

J. N. Shive19,28,40

J. R. Davey28,30

J. R. Harris28,30

J. R. Schrieffer16

J. W. McRae34

J.F. Wentz53

J.J. Coupling63,66

Jack Morton13,15,28,29,30,39

Jack Morton Tube49

Jack Saddler48

Jaffe72

Jakes65,66,68

James B. Fisk64

James M. Early6, 22, 48, 49, 51,55, 62, 69, 71, 78, 80

James Madison Medal, Princeton16

Jan. 30, 19917

Jane Maxwell16

Japan74

Japan Academy16

Jet Propulsion63

Jet Propulsion Laboratory63,64

Jig-fabricated devices31

John71

John Bardeen9,10,16,17,21,49

John Bardeen in his later years17

John Bardeen, Transistor Pioneer Dies at 8217

John Bardeen was really the brains77

John Fairfield41,51

John Hornbeck79

John Mayo78

John N. Shive18,29

John R. Pierce63,66,75, 71, 80

John Roberts66

John Scott Medal, Philadelphia16

John Shive14

John W. Finney63

Johnson67

Johnston26

Jones74

Journal of Electrochemical Society54

JPL65,66,79,81

JPL's Goldstone site64

Juarez, Mexico,43

Junction14, 15,41

Junction amplifiers30

Junction performance26

Junction tetrode transistor35,37

Junction transistor6,13, 25, 14,15,16,20, 22, 25, 26,29, 30, 32,39, 40, 48

Junction transistor development26

Junction type Transistors28

Junctions42

Junctions were photosensitive58

June, 194813

K

K. D. Smith4, 5, 7,22, 23, 33, 48, 51, 52,53, 54, 55, 70, 76, 77, 78

K. D. Smith's career52

K. Metzgar34

K.D. Smith at Bell Laboratories53,

54,55,56,57

K.D. Smith, photo of ca. 193056

K.D. Smith Collection27,48,49,50,51

K.D. Smith's Field notes53

K.D. Smith's preservation efforts50

K.D.'s notebooks55

Kappel67,71

Kappel-Fisk interview67

Karl Lark-Holovitz11

Kelly28,64,83

Ken Smith7,8

Kenelm McCauley16

Kennedy75

Kenneth D. Smith2, 26

Kept the idea to himself14

Klahn68

Koji Kobayashi74

Kolb36

Kompfner64,65,66,72,83

Korean War45

L

L. G. Schimpf37

L. N. Cooper16

L. R. Lowry68

Lab notebooks (That belonged to K. D. Smith)48

Laboratories64

Laboratory demonstration model14

Lancaster, Pennsylvania46

Langley Field64

Lansdale Transistor45

Large area silicon devices26

Large power rectifiers54

Las Cruces, New Mexico43

Las Vegas75

Lattice10,45

Launch capability77

Launch vehicle44,72

Lax, Dr. B.34

Lebedev Institute in Moscow72

LeeAnn Sharpe49

Legislated the Bell System out of international satellite business73

Leonard Jaffe72

Lepselter70

Let's be Practical About Space66

Letter From Ian Ross4

Library51

Licenses15

Life Of K. D. Smith At Bell Laboratories52

Light as a carrier generator44

Little40

Live broadcast from France discussed in text78

Live broadcast from the white house75

Live Via Satellite 77

Load between the collector and base13

Long cables80

Long distance communication53

Long distance telephone calls49, 53

Long distance telephone traffic53

Loomis Lab10

Loren Jones74

Los Angeles82

Los Angles to San Francisco82

Low altitude orbit80

Low-altitude satellites66

Lowry68

Low temperature superconductivity17

Lyndon B. Johnson67

M

M 1689 Point Contact Bead Transistors50

M and A series numbers51

M series part48

M-1752 (Transistor)6, 22,26,32, 48,51, 54

M-1752 prototype26

M. J. Kelly10

M. Sparks23,28,35

Machine Design55

Macy's7

Madison Central High16

Madison, Wisconsin16

Madison, Wisconsin16

Madras, India16

Magnetic field of the earth69

Magnetic materials60

Magnetosphere69

Magnetron resonances71

Maine69

Manhattan Engineer District, Oak Ridge, Tenn.71

Manned exploration of space64

Manned space station at the Trojan position74

Manned space stations74

Manned synchronous satellites for communication63

Marconi International Fellowship74

Marcus O'Day43

Martin P. Lepselter70

Martin Summerfield63

Mary Agnes Early71

Maryland66

Maser low-noise amplifier65

Massachusetts64

Maxwell16

Mayo78

McCarty Wireless Telephone Company8

McCauley16

McDavitt71

McMahon29,30,31,32,33,48,49,51

McRae34

Medal of Honor, Inst. of Electrical and Electronic16

Melt41

Memorandum For Record50

Memoriam - Kenneth D. Smith7

Mervin J. Kelly6

Mesa construction45

MESA TRANSISTOR57

Metal point contact13

Metallic lacquers59

Metallized balloon64

Meteorites78

Metzgar34

Mexico43

Michelson-Morley Award, Case-Western Reserve16

Micro-meteorite damage to solar cells78

Micro-meteorites78

Microlectron, Inc.47

Micromanipulator25, 26,35

"Micrometeorites And Damage To Bare Solar Cells In Orbit" (By K. D. Smith)55

Microwave65

Microwave Radio Relay System53

Microwave relay51

Microwave relay systems80

Microwaves64

Military operations at Whippany79

Military pathologists46

Military services28

Miller31

Milwaukee, Wisconsin16

Mini-grown junction triode50

Minnesota16

Minority carrier lifetimes25

Minority carriers26,29,45,51

Missile guidance systems51

MIT Radiation Laboratory31

Mixers39

Mobile carriers11

Mobility of the electrons and holes15

Mohammed Ulysses Fips43

Molecular nature of polymers60

Money no object!79

Monsanto Co.16

Moore43,44,75

Morgan66

Morgan E. McMahon29,30,31, 33, 48, 49, 51

Morgan Sparks20,21,29,40,54

Morton13,15,20,28,29,30,39,49

Morton tube49

Morton Weir17

MOS devices42

Most brilliant of the development group17

Motor-generator43

Motorola27,44,45

Motorola Executive Institute47

Motorola Semiconductor Products47

Mott11

Mount Wilson53

Movies44

Mr. Bardeen, 82, a two-time Noel Prize winner17

Mr. Bardeen considered the superconductivity17

Mr. Dicken27

Mr. Ditzenberger60

Mr. Fuller60

Mr. Kappel67

Mr. Paul Bates10

Mr. Saddler47

Mr. Smith26

Mrs. Kenelm McCauley16

Murray Hill Laboratories28,69, 71

Murray Hill, NJ28, 29, 34, 40, 69, 71

Museum17,19,33,34,48,49,51,

52,53,54,55,62,75

Museum library55

N

N on P solar cells81

N on P structure7,51

n+ material44

N+ on P cells70

N-P-N24

N-P-N grown crystal26

N-P-N grown junction germanium transistor25

N-P-N grown transistors23

N-P-N junction26

N-P-N junction transistor24,35

N-P-N transistor23,26

N-P-N transistor, the A-185826

N-region13

N-side14

N-type10, 11, 14, 23,25, 41

N-type material23

N-type silicon59,61

N. F. Mott11

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) 51,55,63,64,65,67,

69,71,72,73, 74,76,78,80,81,82

National Academy of Engineering16

National Academy of Sciences16,72

National Aeronautics and Space Administration63

National Defense Research Committee52

National Electronics Conference54

National Inventors Hall of Fame16

National Medal of Science16

Naval Ordnance Laboratory in Washington16, 17

Naval Research Laboratory66

Navy28,40

NDRC52

NEC74

Necropsy46

Negative-conductivity germanium.24

Negative-conductivity material61

Neoprene O-ring42

Netherlands16

Network television programming53

New Hampshire at Durham69

New Jersey28,40,45,63,82

New Mexico43

New York16,28,53,67,71,80

New York City13,82

New York State College of Forestry71

New York Times of August 13, 196063

Nike missile72

Nippon Club8

Nobel Prize16, 17, 65

Nobel Prize (Physics)16

Non-common carrier radio relay76

Non-equilibrium conditions15

North31

Notebooks, of K. D. Smith48

Notre Dame16

NPN grown junction transistor54

NPN junction transistor14

NPNP29

NRDC52

NRDC ID card52

NTSC46

Nuclear test77

Nyquist83

O

O.S.R.D.37

O.S.U71

Oberth73

O'Day43

ODDR&E71

Office of Scientific Research and Development52

Ohio State University71

Ohl11,58

Oliver75

Omnidirectional radiation pattern71

O'Neill69,70,71

Operational military communication system64

Orbital Radio Relay63

Orderly progression of demonstrating feasibility80

Organ Pipe Mountains43

Oscillator13, 40

Oscilloscope26, 36

O'Sullivan64

O'Sullivan's balloon64

Our nation's eyes to protect us52

Oven firing59

Oxford England55

P

P carrier system26

P on N Bell Solar Batteries50

P+ on N cells70

p-layer25,36,59

P-N hook effect29

P-N junction15, 24, 25, 34, 58,61

P-N-I-P35

P-region13

P-side14

P-type10,11,14, 23, 41, 42, 70

P-type material23

P. W. Foy34

P1 carrier system (First use of Bell Solar Battery)77

Packard75

Paint on method42

Palo Alto71

"Papa" Friis"75

"Pappy" White43

parallel contacts13

Paris43,77

particle detectors40

Partly Baked Ideas (A K. D. Smith concept)48

Passive satellite ECHO-180

Patent applications13

Patent licensing agreements81

Patent papers62

Patent rights82

Patents15

Pathology46

PBI's (See Partly Baked Ideas)48

PEARSON58,60

Pearson10,11,16,28,58,61

Pen name of John Roberts and J.J. Coupling (Used by John R. Pierce)66

Pennsylvania11,46

Penzias65

Penzias and Wilson65

Peter Goldmark45,46

Pfann39

PGED Washington Conference 195554

PGED Washington Conference 195654

Philadelphia16,46

Philco45

Philmore47

Phoenix17,42

Phosphor-bronze44

Phosphorus42

Photo of K.D. Smith ca. 193056

Photo-electric cell18

Photocells79

Photoconductivity10

Photoelectric device21

Photolithography41

Photons59

Photons of light energy58

Photosensitive58

Phototransistor18, 40

Physical Research Department60

Physical Review20

Physical Review of July 194831

Physicist17

Physics43

PI62

Pickering64

Picture of the three operators in England77

Picture tube45, 46

Pierce, John63,64,65,66,71,72,

73,74,75,80

Pearson29

Pietenpol20, 22,40

Pilot run34

PIN diodes51

Pioneer Dies at 82 (John Bardeen)17

Pipe42

Pittsburgh, PA16

Plastic encapsulation, Transistors27

Platinum70

Pleumeur-Bodou, France67, 72

PN junction13,14

Point contact13,41, 50

Point contact bead transistor50

Point Contact Development Model Transistor50

Point contact transistor10, 13, 15,
29, 31, 34,44,53

Point contacts13,14

Point-contact15,40

Point-contact amplifier behavior29

Policeman watching49

Polycrystalline ingot slices31

Polycrystalline ingots11,15

Polymers60

Pomona College26

Pope, T. N.28

Positive carriers24

Positive space-charge11

Power point contact diode50

Power rectifiers60

Power transistors54

Predicted radiation-induced decrease69

Preliminary sketches49

Presented with an award52

President Eisenhower63,66

President Kennedy75

President of AT&T Bell Laboratories4

Presidential Medal of Freedom16

Press conference in New York City13

Princeton16,63

Princeton Research Center44

Princeton University16

Proceedings of the IRE64

Production models54

Productive engineer49

Prof. B. R. Russell, U. of Penn.34

Prof. D. G. Burkhard, U. of Colo.,34

Prof. John Bardeen34

Professor Martin Summerfield63

Project ADVENT80

Project Echo64

Project engineer54

Project engineer for what became Telstar71

"Properties and Applications of Diffused Junction Transistors"54

Properties of Grown Junction Transistors54

Proton flux55

Prototype of the transistor radio17

Proximity fuses26,52

Pseudonym J.J. Coupling63

Pulse-coded command signals43

Pulsed base contact32

Q

Q METER52

QCWA48

Quad Darlington configurations (After B. N. Oliver)75

Quarter Century Wireless Association48

Quartz crystal5

Quate64

Queen Elizabeth73

Question about polarization (Telstar)77

R

R. A. Coradeschi61

R. E. Yaeger28

R. Klahn68

R. L. (Bob) Wallace30

R. L. Carbrey36

R. L. Johnston26

R. L. Johnston bonding leads to n-p-n junction26

R. L. Trent28

R. L. Wallace, Jr.20,22, 28,35, 37, 40, 54

R. M. (Bob) Ryder6, 28, 29

R. M. Showers, U. of Penn.34

R. N. Hall16

R. S. (Bob) Caruthers28, 30

R. S. Ohl58

R.E. (Bob) Yeager30

R.W. Friis53

RADAR51. 52, 53

Radar bombing equipment26

Radiation belt55

Radiation from outer space69

Radiation in space. It was Walter Brown's experiment79

Radiation Laboratory at MIT11

Radiation resistance test facility69

Radiation susceptibilities69

Radiation test facility70

Radiation-resistant high-efficiency solar cells69

Radio45

Radio and Television News43

Radio Corporation of America72

Radio Electricite43

Radio "ham"7

Radio links74

Radio News43

Radio receiver39

Radio receiver without vacuum tubes13

Radio tubes48

Radiocraft43

Raisbeck28,29,30

Ramo, Si31

Ratio of electron current24

RCA6,44,45,46,51,72,74,76

RCA built the RELAY76

RCA Princeton Research Center44

RCA Research Labs45

RCA Semiconductor47

Real-time television69

Receiver63, 79

Recombination45

Recombination catalyzers25

RECORD49,78

RECORD June, 1954, page 203.35

RECORD, October, 1954, page 384.35

Rectification11

Rectification at a P-N Junction15

Rectifying14

Rectifying contact11

RELAY76

Relay72,78

RELAY came after TELSTAR76

RELAY satellite they should used a tripler76

Reliability15

Renesselaer Polytechnic Institute16

Repeatered routes53

Reproducibility15

Reproducibility and reliability were poor15

Reproducibility of point-contact transistors15

Research funds to universities16

Research group in solid-state physics at Bell17

Response of silicon solar cell58

Reverse direction14

Rhoda G. Early71

Right-hand and lefthand polarization72

Robert Gibney10

Robert M. Ryder7, 8, 39, 40

Robert Seamans, Jr.72

Roberts66

Rochester, New York16

Rock and roll back in the early 60's (Telstar song)76

Rocket43

Roetken53

Rose Polytechnic Inst.16

Rosen73,74

Ross4

Rough drafts49

Roy Tillotson65,66,71

Royal Society of London16

Rudi (Rudolpf) Kompfner64,65,66,72,83

Rural telephone lines62

Rural telephone service61

Rural telephone system62

Russell34

Russell Ohl11

Russian Government Radio Laboratories43

Ryder, Robert M.22,28,29,33,39,40,

48,49

S

Saddler22,44,45,46, 47, 48

Salt Lake City82

Sam Morgan66

San Francisco82

San Jose Mercury News 1/31/9117

Sandblasting broke the single crystal70

Sandia Corporation27

Sanford H. (Sandy) Barnes31

Santa Barbara49

Sapphire51

Sarnoff, David44

Satellite50, 51,53,63,65,67,68,69,70,

71,72,73,76,78,79,80,81

Satellite communication65, 71, 73,80

Satellite communications system39

Satellite repeater69

Scheibner34

Schematic diagram of a point-contact transistor14

Schimpf37

Schottky11

Schottky barrier70

Science fiction63,64

Scientific American Library66

Scoff58

SCORE (Signal Communication by Orbiting Relay Equipment)74

Scout rocket73

Sealed junction technology71

Seamans72

Second Nobel in 1972 (John Bardeen)17

Seed crystal23

Semiconductor11,13,15,16,32,39,40,41, 42,44,45,50,58

Semiconductor crystal58

Semiconductor Electronic Memories42

Semiconductor industry44

Semiconductor manufacturing47

Semiconductor research60

Semiconductor revolution16

Semiconductors10,31

Shadow mask46

Sharpe, Edward A.17,47,48,52,76,77,

78,79,

80,81,82,83

Shield the interior of the film11

Shive, J. N.14,15,18,19,28,29,40

Shockley, William9,10,13,14,15,16,17,

29,40,53,54,77

Short haul and one was the big long haul backbone82

Showers34

Si Ramo31

Signal characteristics at Holmdel68

Signal Communication by Orbiting Relay Equipment (SCORE)74

Signal generators26

Silicon11,42,51,58,59,61,70

Silicon alloy diode60

Silicon crystals51

Silicon devices27

"Silicon Diffused Junction Avalanche Diodes" (An article by K. D. Smith)54

"Silicon Diodes Protect Meters" (By K.D. Smith)54

Silicon dioxide41

Silicon point-contact microwave diodes39

Silicon rectifiers60

Silicon solar cell58, 70

Silicon transistors45

Silicon wafer60

Silver70

Simple experimental satellite64

Single crystal23,44,45

Single crystal aluminum oxide70

Single crystal germanium44

Single crystal germanium ingots31

Single crystals15,21, 39

Skin temperature68

SMEC13,17,62,75

SMEC NOTE13

SMEC UPDATE19, 22, 33,34

Smith, K. D. 4,22,23,26,33,48,49,50,

51,52, 53,56,57,62,70,74,76

Smith family48

Smits55,70

Snyder48

Society of Fellows, Harvard University16

Society of Manufacturing Engineers47

Sodium42

Soft spoken and well liked by his peers. (said about John Bardeen)17

Solar Battery48, 59, 60

Solar Battery was placed in experimental service61

Solar cell7, 40,48,50,55,58, 59,62,

68,69,70,71,76,78,79

SOLAR CELLS FOR COMMUNICATION SATELLITES IN THE VAN ALLEN RADIATION BELT (K. D. Smith co-authored)55

Solar energy70

Solar energy converter60

Solar sensors68

Solid state51

Solid State Device Research Conference69

Solid state technology48

Somerville, New Jersey45

Sound on film44

Southern Bell Telephone Company.61

Southern California82

Southwest Museum of Electricity and Communications10, 17,27,48, 49

Soviet Union64,72

Space44,55,64,73

Space borne solar power plant55

Space charge13

Space program44

Space research and exploration63

Space Shuttle74

Space station73

Space World66

Space-charge11

Space-charge layer widening ("Early effect")71

Spacious Fantasies66

Sparks20,21,23,28,29,35,40,54

Sparks and Teal Prototype54

Special Weapons Assembly Officer27

Spectrometer58

SPECTRUM71

Spenke11

Sprague45

Sputnik64

St. Andrews University16

Staff engineer48

Stanford University60, 66

Starfish Prime (atomic test that hurt Telstar I)69

Statistical information51

Status reports (from Bell Laboratories)50, 51

Stiles68

Storage battery charging tests58

Strontium 90 source69

Stuart Ballentine Medal16

Stump Neck66

Sub-panel used for solar project62

Subminiature glass diode31

Subtype 1 (Type A Transistor)13

Subtype 2 (Type A Transistor)13

Subtype 3 (Type A Transistor)13

Sullivan64

Summer school held at Bell Labs in 195116

Summerfield63

Summit, N. J.69

Superconductivity17

Suppressors80

Surface effects43

Surface leakage27

Surface phenomenon19

Surface states11,41

Surface treatments43

Surge Limitations of Junction Transistors54

SURVEYOR (un-manned probe built by Hughes for JPL)79, 81

Sweet spot31

Switching applications29

Symposium28, 30, 33

Synchronous communication satellites74

Synchronous orbit64,74

Synchronous orbit satellite71

Synchronous satellite73,74, 80, 81

Synchronous satellites for communication63

Synchronous space stations64

SYNCOM (built by Hughes for COMSAT corp.)73,74

Synthetic rubber60

Synthetic sapphire51

Syracuse, New York71

T

T. Keith Glennan66

T. N. Pope28

T0-544

TD-249,53,75,79,80,82

TD-2 has run it's course is the bandwidth problem80

TD-2 Microwave Radio Relay System53

TD-2 STORY, THE75

TE-153

TE-1 microwave relay system82

TE-253

Teachers Taught About Transistors34

Teal15,20,21,40,54

Technical articles81

Technical Memorandums50

Technical press13

TELE-TECH magazine54

Telemetry channel79

Telemetry that had the 2 year timer on it79

Telephone repeater tube26

Telephone system15

Television17,43,44,67

Television and microwave coverage74

Television picture relayed from space69

Television studio to transmitter site service53

Television transmission53

Telstar39,40,62,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,

74,75, 77,78,79, 80, 83

Telstar, A History. By John R. Pierce71

Telstar I7,50, 51, 55,71, 81

Telstar I - Dawn of a New Age69

Telstar Success67

Telstar The Management Story75

Telstar's I and II55

Telstar's orbit decay79

Telstar's orbits78

Testing facilities at carrier and radio frequencies26

Tetrode26,36,37, 40, 50

Tetrode transistor35,36,37,50

Texas43

Texas Instruments16

TH79

The $25,000 book33

The Bell Solar Battery50, 55,58,61

The Bell System48,54

"The Coaxial Transistor"31

The Communication Satellite Act73

THE GREAT TRANSISTOR SYMPOSIUM OF 195129

THE HUMAN SIDE OF EARLY ELECTRONICS44

The Institute of Physics16

The Institute of Radio Engineers37

The invisible focus of a million eyes.73

The Jack Morton Tube49

The K.D. Smith memorial49

The Later Years.55

The Maximum of Ten Rule (a K. D. Smith quantity) 48

The Passing Of A Great Physicist (John Bardeen dies)17

The Rocket Into Planetary Space (1923)73

The rural telephone system62

The Starfish Prime test69

"The TD-2 Microwave Radio Relay System" (co-authored by K. D. Smith)53

"THE TD-2 STORY" (By A. C. Dickieson)53

THE TE and TD SERIES82

"The Transistor"29

The Wireless World74

The World Mourns The Passing Of A Great Physicist17

Theory of low temperature superconductivity17

Thermal modeling70

Thermistors50

"They like you." ( said about John Pierce)74

"They're trying to help us"72

Thin film11

Thin film "field effect" transistor11

Thirty-six risks that ranked higher than that70

Thor Delta booster72

Thor Delta vehicle73

Thornton45

Thrust to attain high orbit80

TI27,51

Tillotson65,66,71,73

Tillotson's Memorandum71

Tillotson's proposal73

TIME CAPSULE I53

TIME CAPSULE II53

Tiros satellite66

Titanium70

Tom Hudspeth73

Tradup28

Trailside Museum7

Trans-Atlantic television transmission67

Trans-continental microwave communications49

Transactions for the AIEE53

Transactions of PGMIL66

Transistor11,13,14,15,17,20,22,25,

26, 28,31,32,33,34,35, 36,37,39,43, 44,45,49,50, 71,78,79

Transistor code number 175227

Transistor action19

Transistor Chronology From The Bell Telephone Laboratories40

Transistor Development23

Transistor development15

Transistor development7

Transistor Development Department37

Transistor for the first U.S. satellite71

Transistor makers and users29

Transistor physics20,21

Transistor physics into university courses40

Transistor Pioneer Dies at 8217

Transistor replaced vacuum tubes in radios17

Transistor school40

Transistor symposium40

Transistor Symposium at Murray Hill28

TRANSISTOR SYMPOSIUM OF 195129

Transistor Teachers Summer School34

TRANSISTOR TECHNOLOGY54

Transistorized repeater experiment50

Transistors30,34, 41,50,51, 55,62,69,

70,79

Transistors Made by Dickten50

Transmission Research Department37

Transmitter power of one watt71

Transmitters63

Transoceanic communication71

Transverse electric field11

Traveling wave tube40, 64,71, 78,791

Trent28

Triode15

Tropospheric scatter communication74

TRW Electronic Components Group30

TS75

TSX-175

Tube64

Tucson, Arizona48

TV demonstration67

TV network programming49

TV signal44

TV signal relayed via Telstar67

Twenty-Five Thousand Dollar Book29

Twin planes,42

Two satellites could be nested together72

Type A13

Type A (1) 50

Type A(2)50

Type A(3)50

Type-A Transistors13

U

U. S.-Object Glitters in Sky Like a Star63

U.S. Army Signal Corps27

U.S. Army Signal Corps's Courier Sat.74

U.S. Congress39

U.S. President's Science Advisory Committee16

UC Berkley30

UCLA30

Union College16

United Press-International67

United States63,72,73,74

United States Navy42

Universities16

University of Chicago42,60

University of Glasgow16

University of Ill.49

University of Illinois Loomis Lab10

University of Illinois10,16,17

University of Illinois34

University of Leiden16

University of Leiden, Netherlands16

University of Madison16

University of Minnesota16,17

Until

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